Cities are core cities following the Urban Audit definition (Eurostat, 2010). In most cases the delineation of the core city matches the urban built-up area. But in some cases the delineation also includes substantial areas outside the urban built-up areas (parts of the urban fringe and hinterland); in other cases, it includes only city centres
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New supermarkets in the area can reduce business for smaller shops. Pollution and congestion would be significantly less if consumers frequented their local shops, rather than travelling long distances to out-of-town shopping centres.
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