Marginal external costs of passenger transport, minimum and maximum values per transport mode (Euro/vehicle km for aviation; Euro/10 vehicle km for other modes)

Figure Created 12 Nov 2009 Published 12 Nov 2009 Last modified 29 Nov 2012, 11:35 AM
MC = Motorcycle; HDV = Heavy duty vehicle (3.5-40 tonnes); LDV = Low duty vehicle (< 3.5tonnes)



Additional information

Values given are averages for EU-15 plus Norway and Switzerland. Congestion and infrastructure costs are not included. Nature costs are costs caused by infrastructure and hence zero in the short run. Urban effects refer to costs of separation and space availability (the latter is related to infrastructure and zero in the short-run).

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European Environment Agency (EEA)
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