Marginal external costs of passenger transport, minimum and maximum values per transport mode (Euro/vehicle km for aviation; Euro/10 vehicle km for other modes)
Values given are averages for EU-15 plus Norway and Switzerland. Congestion and infrastructure costs are not included. Nature costs are costs caused by infrastructure and hence zero in the short run. Urban effects refer to costs of separation and space availability (the latter is related to infrastructure and zero in the short-run).
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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