The total volume of electricity produced from renewable sources increased by 288 TWh between 1990 and 2008: this represents an increase of 87.2 % (3.5 %/year on average). From 1990 to 2003, the share of renewable in the electricity production remained quite stable (13-14%); from 2003 to 2008 this share has increased from 13.9% to 18.4%. Most of this increase can be attributed to Germany, Sweden, France, Spain and Italy with a respective share of 17.7%, 13.3%, 13.1%, 11.1% and 10.7% in the EU-27 electricity production from renewable. From 2003 to 2008, electricity production from renewable has increased by 6.4% per year in the EU-27, with an annual growth rate of 15.1% for Denmark, 13.4% for Netherlands, 9.0%/year for Germany and 8.0%/year for Ireland from 1990. Substantial growth will be required to meet the indicative EU-27 target of a 20 % share of renewable in final energy consumption by 2020 (see also ENER030 and ENER029).
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Data shown are for gross
electricity production and include electricity production from both public plants
and auto-producers. Renewables include electricity produced from hydro
(excluding pumping), biomass, municipal waste, geothermal, wind
solar PV and solar thermal energy. The share of renewables presented in the
chart is that for production and hence does not correspond to the share, for
consumption, as required by Directive 2001/77/EC. The difference between both
shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of
electricity. ‘Other fuels’ include electricity produced from power plants not
accounted for elsewhere, such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial
wastes. It also includes the electricity generated as a result of pumping in
The recommended temperature for a refrigerator is between 1 – 4 °C
and for the freezer it should be set at -18 °C. Each degree below these temperatures makes no difference as to how well the food is preserved, but it does increase energy consumption by approximately five per cent. Place a thermometer in the refrigerator and the freezer to check the temperature!
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