Changes in Northern Hemisphere September sea ice extent as simulated by CMIP5 models over the second half of the 20th century and the whole 21st century under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5.

Figure Created 07 Apr 2014 Published 07 Apr 2014 Last modified 10 Apr 2014, 10:00 AM
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The solid curves show the multi-model means and the shading denotes the 5–95% range of the ensemble. The vertical line marks the end of CMIP5 historical climate change simulations. One ensemble member per model is taken into account in the analysis.Sea ice extent is defined as the total ocean area where sea ice concentration exceeds 15% and is calculated on the original model grids. Changes are relative to the reference period 1986–2005. The number of models available for each RCP is given in the legend. Also plotted (solid green curves) are the satellite data of Comiso and Nishio (2008, updated 2012) over 1979–2012.


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