Figure left: Sprawl of artificial areas 1990-2000 on Europen coasts, by dominant land cover types, km2
Figure right: Conversion from other land cover to agriculture 1990-2000 on Europen coasts, by dominant land cover types, km2
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New supermarkets in the area can reduce business for smaller shops. Pollution and congestion would be significantly less if consumers frequented their local shops, rather than travelling long distances to out-of-town shopping centres.
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