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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Custom lists / Uncertainties

Uncertainties

CSI Specifications, section on uncertainties
Indicator Specification D source code Number of organisations with registered environmental management systems according to EMAS and ISO 14001 — 05 Apr 2013
The indicator presents the total number of organisations and number of sites registered under the EU environmental management system (EMS) certification scheme, EMAS (Figure 1), and the number of organisations certified according to the international standard for EMS, ISO14001 (Figure 2), year by year. 
Indicator Specification River flow — 03 Apr 2014
This indicator shows the trends in monthly stream flow over more than 4 decades for locations across Europe. The indicator also shows the projected change in annual and seasonal river flow in Europe for 2071-2100 (SRES A1B scenario) compared to 1961-1990. For some selected locations, the projected change in daily average river flow for 2071-2100 compared to 1961-1990 is shown.
Indicator Specification D source code CO2 intensity of electricity and heat generation — 30 Apr 2012
Annual emissions of CO 2 in UNFCCC reporting format (In Mt = million tonnes). For CO 2 only, the (national) totals do not include emissions from biomass burning or emissions or removals from land-use change and forestry (LULUCF – CFR 5). The energy sector (CFR 1) is responsible for energy-related emissions, such as those arising from fuel combustion activities and fugitive emissions from fuels. Fuel combustion activities include: energy industries, manufacturing industries and construction, transport, other sectors and other stationary or mobile emissions from fuel combustion. Fugitive emissions from fuels include: solid fuels and oil and natural gas.
Indicator Specification Global and European sea-level rise — 19 Nov 2012
This indicator comprises several metrics to describe past and (to a limited extent) future sea-level rise globally and in Europe. Global sea-level rise is reported because it is the second-most important metric of global climate change (after global mean surface temperature), and because it is a proxy of sea-level rise in Europe. Past sea-level trends across Europe are reported in two different ways: first, absolute sea level change based on satellite altimeter measurements that reflect primarily the contribution of global climate change to sea-level rise in Europe; seconed, relative sea-level change based on tide gauges that also include local land movement, which is more relevant for the development of regional adaptation strategies. The following components are included: Change in global mean sea level (time series starting in 1880, in mm), based on a reconstruction from various data sources (since 1880) and on satellite altimeter data (since 1993) Trend in absolute sea level across Europe (map, in mm/year), based on satellite measurements (since 1992) Trend in relative sea level across Europe (map, in mm/year), based on selected European tide gauge stations (since 1970) In addition, this indicator informs about the contributions from various sources to the observed global sea level rise (since 1972). Finally, this indicator presents projections for sea level rise in the 21st century, both globally and for the European seas.
Indicator Specification Air pollution by ozone and health — 20 Nov 2012
Annual mean ozone concentrations by station type Modelled change in tropospheric ozone concentrations over Europe Selection of meteorological parameters that might increase under future climate change and their impact on ozone levels
Indicator Specification Total Gross Inland Consumption by Fuel — 18 Mar 2013
The structure of the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption provides an indication of the environmental pressures associated with energy consumption. The type and magnitude of the environmental impacts associated with energy consumption, such as resource depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, water pollution, accumulation of radioactive waste, etc., strongly depend on the type and amount of fuel consumed as well as abatement technologies applied.
Indicator Specification Water-limited crop productivity — 20 Nov 2012
Projected changes in effective solar radiation Projected changes in water-limited crop yield Projected change in water-limited wheat production
Indicator Specification Total primary energy intensity — 28 Feb 2013
Total energy intensity is the ratio between the gross inland consumption of energy and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) calculated for a calendar year. The gross inland consumption of energy is calculated as the sum of the gross inland consumption of the five sources of energy: solid fuels, oil, gas, nuclear and renewable sources. To monitor trends, GDP is in constant prices to avoid the impact of inflation, base year 2005.
Indicator Specification Transport final energy consumption by mode — 21 Apr 2009
The total energy consumption in transport in Petajoule (PJ) from 1990 onwards. Transport modes included are bunkers (sea), air transport (domestic and international), inland navigation, rail transport and road transport.
Indicator Specification Distribution of plant species — 20 Nov 2012
Expected average percentage of stable area of 856 plant species for two different climate scenarios
Indicator Specification Distribution and abundance of animal species — 20 Nov 2012
Observed latitudinal shifts of four species groups over 25 years in Britain Temporal trend of bird and butterfly community temperature index across Europe Projected impact of climate change on the potential distribution of reptiles and amphibians Projected changes in the climate niche space of the Small Tortoise shell Changes in mammalian species richness
Indicator Specification Irrigation water requirement — 20 Nov 2012
Rate of change of the meteorological water balance Projected change in water availability for irrigation in the Mediterranean region
Indicator Specification application/x-troff-ms Storms — 19 Nov 2012
Trends in the extreme wind speeds (95th percentile of daily maximum wind speed) Projected changes in extreme wind speed (98th percentile of daily maximum wind speed) based on GCM and RCM ensemble
Indicator Specification River flow drought — 20 Nov 2012
Water scarcity and drought events in Europe Projected change in minimum river flow with return period of 20 years
Indicator Specification Forest growth — 22 Nov 2012
Forest area Volume of forest biomass
Indicator Specification Greenhouse gas emission trends — 06 Apr 2005
This indicator presents anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Europe from 1990 onwards. It analyses the trends (total and by sector) in relation to the European Community and Member States Kyoto targets for the period 2008-2012. Definitions (from UNFCCC) Emissions: the release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors into the atmosphere over a specified area and period of time. Greenhouse gases: those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. Sink: any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. Source: any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases are calculated according to the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (see Methodology ), as agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Scope Gases All the greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , HFCs and PFCs). This does not include the greenhouse gases that are also ozone-depleting substances and which are controlled by the Montreal Protocol (see CSI 006 ). In order to be aggregated, non-CO 2 gases are weighed by their respective global warming potential and presented in CO 2 -equivalent units. Emission sources The indicator provides information on emissions from the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas sources, distributed by main emitting sectors (according IPCC nomenclature): energy supply and use (including energy industry, fugitive emissions, energy use by industry and by other sectors, excluding the transport sector); transport; industry (processes, i.e. not including emissions from fossil fuel combustion for energy use); agriculture; waste; other (non-energy). Unless otherwise mentioned, the indicator does not cover emissions from international bunkers (international aviation and maritime transport), which are not covered by the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, these emissions are not taken into account in the total greenhouse gas emissions reported at national and EU levels. Emissions from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) are not included in total greenhouse gas emissions. Geographical area The indicator covers all 27 Member States from the European Union. Some figures also include information concerning other EEA Member States. Period covered The indicator covers annual emissions since 1990.
Indicator Specification Emissions of acidifying substances (version 1) — 16 Mar 2005
The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of acidifying substances: Nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide, each weighted by their acidifying potential. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy industries; road and other transport; industry (processes and energy); other (energy); fugitive emissions; waste; agriculture and other (non energy).
Indicator Specification Emissions of ozone precursors (version 1) — 18 Mar 2005
This indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors: Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, methane and non methane volatile organic compounds, each weighted by their tropospheric ozone-forming potential. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy industries; road and other transport; industry (processes and energy); other (energy); fugitive emissions; waste; agriculture and other (non energy).
Indicator Specification D source code Emissions of primary particles and secondary particulate matter precursors — 18 Mar 2005
This indicator tracks trends in emissions of primary particulate matter less than 10 m m (PM 10 ) and secondary precursors, aggregated according to the particulate formation potential of each precursor considered [1]. The indicator also provides information on changes in emissions from the main source sectors.   [1] de Leeuw, (2002), A set of emission indicators for long-range transboundary air pollution, Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2002, Pages 135-145. ( http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VP6-44HYMJ7-1/1/d6e469ff7969874250c6d0f656a8c76b ) (supported by the European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change, under contract to the European Environment Agency)
Indicator Specification Troff document Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas (version 1) — 06 Apr 2005
The indicator shows the fraction of the urban population that is potentially exposed to ambient air (1) concentrations of pollutants (2) in excess of the EU limit value set for the protection of human health. The urban population considered is the total number of people living in cities with at least one monitoring station. Exceedance of air quality limit values occurs when the concentration of air pollutants exceeds the limit values specified in the first Daughter Directive of the Air Quality Framework Directive for SO 2 , PM 10 (3), NO 2 and the target values for O 3 as specified in the third Daughter Directive. Where there are multiple limit values (see section on Policy Targets), the indicator uses the most stringent case: Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ): the daily limit value; Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ): the annual limit value; Particulate matter (PM 10 ): the annual limit value; Ozone (O 3 ): the short term objective.   (1) "Ambient air" shall mean outdoor air in the troposphere, excluding work places. (2) "pollutant" shall mean any substance introduced directly or indirectly by man into the ambient air and likely to have harmful effects on human health and/or the environment as a whole. (3) "PM 10 " shall mean particulate matter which passes through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 m g aerodynamic diameter.
Indicator Specification Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone (version 1) — 07 Jun 2005
The indicator shows the ecosystem or crops areas at risk of exposure to harmful effects of acidification, eutrophication and ozone as a consequence of air pollution, and shows the state of change in acidification, eutrophication and ozone levels of the European environment. The risk is estimated by reference to the 'critical load' for acidification and eutrophication and 'critical level' for ozone for each location, this being a quantitative estimate of the exposure to these pollutants below which significant and harmful such effects do not occur in the long term at present knowledge. Two critical loads, for acidity and for nutrient nitrogen, are employed to describe exposure to acidification and to eutrophication respectively. The area over which the deposition of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants is in exceedance of critical loads provides an indication of the ecosystem area in which such damage could occur. The magnitude of the potential risk is displayed as the percentage of total ecosystem areas exposed to exceedence of these critical loads.  By showing the change in risk over time, the state of change in acidification and eutrophication is displayed. By including the risk to be met within a legislative target and year the distance from this target is displayed. The fraction of agricultural crops  that is potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of ozone in excess of the EU target value set for the protection of vegetation is also shown.
Indicator Specification Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances — 06 Apr 2005
This indicator quantifies the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in Europe. ODS are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine or/and bromine and that destroy the stratospheric ozone layer.
Indicator Specification Threatened and protected species — 18 Mar 2005
This indicator shows: It will show how many species present in Europe and assessed as globally threatened are protected by European instruments such as EC Directives and the Bern Convention.
Indicator Specification Progress to greenhouse gas emission targets — 13 Apr 2005
This indicator illustrates the projected trends in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in relation to the EU and Member State targets, using existing policies and measures and/or additional policies and/or use of Kyoto mechanisms. The greenhouse gases are those covered by the Kyoto Protocol (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , HFCs and PFCs), weighed by their respective global warming potential, aggregated and presented in CO 2 -equivalent units.
Indicator Specification Progress in management of contaminated sites — 16 Mar 2005
The term 'contaminated site' refers to a well-delimited area where the presence of soil contamination has been confirmed. The severity of the impacts to ecosystems and human health can be such that remediation is needed, specifically in relation to the current or planned use of the site. The remediation or clean-up of contaminated sites can result in a full elimination or in a reduction of these impacts. The term "potentially contaminated site" includes any site where soil contamination is suspected but not verified and detailed investigations need to be carried out to verify whether relevant impacts exist. Management of contaminated sites is designed to ameliorate any adverse effects where impairment of the environment is suspected or has been proved, and to minimize any potential threats (to human health, water bodies, soil, habitats, foodstuffs, biodiversity etc.). Management starts with a basic desk study or historical investigation, which may lead to more detailed investigations, remediation or land redevelopment. The indicator shows progress in five main steps: 1) preliminary study; 2) preliminary investigation; 3) main site investigation; 4) implementation of risk reduction measures. The indicator also shows the costs to society of the clean-up, the main activities responsible for soil contamination and the achievements managing the contaminated sites.
Indicator Specification Municipal waste generation — 25 Feb 2005
The indicator presents municipal waste generation, expressed in kg per person. Municipal waste refers to waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities; the main part originates from households, but waste from commerce and trade, office buildings, institutions and small businesses is also included.
Indicator Specification Use of freshwater resources — 25 Feb 2005
The water exploitation index (WEI) is the mean annual total abstraction of freshwater divided by the mean annual total renewable freshwater resource at the country level, expressed in percentage terms.
Indicator Specification Oxygen consuming substances in rivers — 25 Feb 2005
The key indicator for the oxygenation status of water bodies is the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) which is the demand for oxygen resulting from organisms in water that consume oxidisable organic matter. The indicator illustrates the current situation and trends regarding BOD and concentrations of total ammonium (NH 4 ) in rivers.
Indicator Specification Nutrients in freshwater — 11 May 2005
Concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate in rivers, total phosphorus in lakes and nitrate in groundwater bodies. The indicator can be used to illustrate geographical variations in current nutrient concentrations and temporal trends.
Indicator Specification D source code Nutrients in transitional, coastal and marine waters — 08 Jun 2005
The indicator shows 1) annual winter concentrations (micromol/l); 2) classification of concentration levels (i.e. low, moderate, high) and 3) trends in winter oxidised nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite) and phosphate concentration (micromol/l)in the regional seas of Europe.  Levels and trends of winter concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients are used for this indicator, as it is assumed that winter concentrations are not significantly reduced due to uptake by primary producers. The winter period is defined as follows: January, February and March for stations east of longitude 15 degrees (Bornholm) in the Baltic Sea  January and February for all other stations. The used regional and subregional seas of Europe are in line with the geographical regions and sub-regions specified in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).  Other European Seas (Icelandic Sea, The Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the White Sea) are not covered in this indicator due to current lack of data. 
Indicator Specification Bathing water quality — 07 Apr 2005
The indicator describes the changes over time in the quality of identified bathing waters (inland and coastal) in EU in terms of compliance with standards for parameters introduced by the EU Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC) , i.e. microbiological parameters (total coliforms and faecal coliforms) and physicochemical parameters (mineral oils, surface-active substances and phenols), as well as in terms of meeting standards for parameters introduced by the New Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC), i.e. microbiological parameters (intestinal enterococci and Escherichia coli). The indicator also shows bathing water quality results in the European countries and European sea regions for the 2012 bathing season. The indicator is based on the annual reports made by Member States, as well as Croatia and Switzerland to the European Commission. Croatia (Member State from July 2013) is not included in EU average up to the 2012 season.
Indicator Specification D source code Chlorophyll in transitional, coastal and marine waters — 08 Jun 2005
The indicator shows 1) annual mean summer surface concentrations (microgram/l), 2) classification of concentration levels (i.e. low, moderate, high) and 3) trends in mean summer surface concentrations of chlorophyll-a (microgram/l) in the regional seas of Europe. Summer period is: June to September for stations north of latitude 59 degrees in the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland)  May to September for all other stations  The used regional and subregional seas of Europe are in line with the geographical regions and sub-regions specified in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).  Other European Seas (Icelandic Sea, The Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the White Sea) are not covered in this indicator due to current lack of data.
Indicator Specification chemical/x-pdb Urban waste water treatment — 07 Apr 2005
Percentage of population connected to primary, secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment plants. The indicator illustrates: 1. changes in wastewater treatment in the regions of Europe since the 1980s; 2. conformity (in terms of providing tertiary treatment) by Member States with the requirement to provide, by 31 December 1998, stringent treatment for agglomerations with population equivalent (p.e.) more than 10 000 that discharge into sensitive areas; 3. levels of urban wastewater treatment in large cities in the EU (agglomerations >150 000 p.e.).
Indicator Specification Gross nutrient balance — 08 Mar 2005
The indicator estimates the potential surplus of nitrogen on agricultural land. This is done by calculating the balance between nitrogen added to an agricultural system and nitrogen removed from the system per hectare of agricultural land. The indicator accounts for all inputs to and outputs from the farm. The inputs consists of the amount of nitrogen applied via mineral fertilisers and animal manure as well as nitrogen fixation by legumes, deposition from the air, and some other minor sources. Nitrogen output is contained in the harvested crops, or grass and crops eaten by livestock (escape of nitrogen to the atmosphere, e.g. as N 2 O, is difficult to estimate and therefore not taken into account).
Indicator Specification Passenger transport demand — 18 Mar 2005
The indicator "passenger transport demand" will be presented in two different ways: 1) To measure decoupling of passenger demand from economic growth, we will use the volume of passenger transport relative to GDP, including separate trends for its two components. Both passenger demand and real GDP growth will be indexed on 1995. The decoupling indicator is defined as the ratio between passenger-km (inland modes) and GDP (Gross Domestic Product in constant 1995 EUR). It will be indexed on year t-1 in order to be able to observe changes in the annual intensity of passenger transport demand relative to economic growth. 2) Modal split share of passenger transport: This indicator is defined as the percentage share of transport by passenger car in total inland transport. The unit used is the passenger-kilometre (pkm), which represents one passenger travelling a distance of one kilometre. It is based on transport by passenger cars, buses and coaches, trains and air. All data should be based on movements on national territory, regardless of the nationality of the vehicle. However, data collection methodology is not harmonised at the EU level.
Indicator Specification Freight transport demand — 18 Mar 2005
The indicator "freight transport demand" will be presented in two different ways: 1) To measure decoupling of freight demand from economic growth, we will use the volume of freight transport relative to GDP, including separate trends for its two components. Both freight demand and real GDP growth will be indexed on 1995. The decoupling indicator is defined as the ratio between tonne-kilometres (inland modes) and GDP (Gross Domestic Product in constant 1995 EUR). It will be indexed on year t-1 in order to be able to observe changes in the annual intensity of freight transport demand relative to economic growth. 2) Modal split share of freight transport: This indicator is defined as the percentage share of road in total inland transport. The unit used is the tonne-kilometre (tkm), which represents the movement of one tonne over a distance of one kilometre. It includes transport by road, rail and inland waterways. Rail and inland waterways transport are based on movements on national territory, regardless of the nationality of the vehicle or vessel. Road transport is based on all movements of vehicles registered in the reporting country.
Indicator Specification Use of cleaner and alternative fuels — 18 Mar 2003
Shares of sulphur-free fuels (<10 ppm), and biofuels in total fuel consumption by road transport (in percentage of fuels sold for road transport purposes). The shares of low and zero sulphur petrol and diesel are calculated by dividing the consumption of each fuel by the total fuel consumption of petrol and diesel respectively. The share of biofuels is based on their energy content and is thus calculated by dividing the energy consumption of biofuels by the energy consumption of all petrol and diesel sold for transport purposes.
Indicator Specification APE_F01: Emissions of acidifying substances - outlook from LRTAP — 08 Jun 2009
Definition: Emissions of acidifying pollutants tracks trends in anthropogenic emissions of acidifying substances such as nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide, each weighted by their acidifying potential. Outlook form EMEP LRTAP provides information for nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and ammonia. It is presented in total volumes of pollutants from all sources by sectors: power plants, process industry, domestic, road transport, off-road, and other. Model used: GAINS/RAINS, EMEP Ownership:  UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) Temporal coverage: Emissions' trends: 2000-2007, projections: 2010, 2020 Geographical coverage: EU-27: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia; By country: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom.
Indicator Specification Floods and droughts - outlook from the University of Kassel — 08 Jun 2009
According to WaterGAP model the indicator 'floods and droughts'  provides the following objects: Drought events and deficit volumes are presented in the form of  the drought frequency distributions. Within this indicator the concept of river flow drought (or hydrological drought) is adopted. Floods are presented in the form of the flood frequency distributions or flood discharges. Flood is defined strictly in terms of discharge. To answer to what extent a given discharge value is related to a real flooding, in terms of bursting river banks and setting a considerable area under water, in particular a high-resolutions elevation model is required.
Indicator Specification Abundance and distribution of selected species — 21 May 2010
This indicator shows trends in the abundance of common birds and butterflies over time across their European ranges.  
Indicator Specification Red List Index for European species — 21 May 2010
The Red List Index shows trends in the overall threat status of European species. Specifically the index relates to the proportion of species expected to remain extant in the near future in the absence of additional conservation action.
Indicator Specification reStructured Text Species of European interest — 21 May 2010
The indicator shows changes in the conservation status of species of European interest. It is currently based on data collected under the obligations for monitoring under Article 11 of the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).
Indicator Specification Ecosystem coverage — 21 May 2010
Proportional and absolute change in extent and turnover of land cover categories aggregated to relate to main ecosystem types in Europe from 1990 to 2000. The 13 ecosystem types discussed represent forests, cropland, semi natural vegetation, wetlands, inland water systems, glaciers, permanent snow and urban/constructed/industrial /artificial areas. This indicator is based on photo-interpretation of satellite imagery, and gives a 'wall to wall' picture of the changes and dynamics in Europe with respect to ecosystems. Additional indicators can be used to further highlight trends in extent and state of each of the ecosystem types mentioned above using computations from other data sources. A sub-indicator of change in seagrass coverage of the European Seas can also be used as a proxy for the marine/coastal ecosystems.
Indicator Specification reStructured Text Habitats of European interest — 21 May 2010
The indicator shows changes in the conservation status of habitats of European interest. It is based on data collected under the reporting obligations of Article 17 of the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).
Indicator Specification Livestock genetic diversity — 21 May 2010
The present indicator shows the share of breeding female population between introduced and native breed species (namely, cattle and sheep) per country, as a proxy to assess the genetic diversity of these species. In addition, it shows the proportion of native breeds which is threatened due to low breeding female population.
Indicator Specification Nationally designated protected areas — 21 May 2010
The indicator illustrates the rate of growth in the number and total area of nationally protected areas over time. The indicator can be disaggregated by IUCN category, biogeographic region and country.
Indicator Specification Sites designated under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives — 21 May 2010
The indicator shows the current status of implementation of the Habitats (92/43/EEC) and Birds Directives (79/409/EEC) by EU Member States. It does this by showing (a) trends in spatial coverage of proposals of sites and (b) by calculating a sufficiency index based on those proposals.
Indicator Specification chemical/x-genbank Critical load exceedance for nitrogen — 21 May 2010
Exceedance of critical loads for nitrogen deposition indicating risks for biodiversity loss in (semi)-natural ecosystems.
Indicator Specification Invasive alien species in Europe — 21 May 2010
The indicator 'Invasive alien species in Europe' comprises two elements: 'Cumulative number of alien species in Europe since 1900', which shows trends in species that can potentially become invasive alien species, and 'Worst invasive alien species threatening biodiversity in Europe', a list of invasive species with demonstrated negative impacts. 1. 'Cumulative number of alien species in Europe since 1900' The cumulative number of alien species established in Europe from 1900 onwards is estimated in 10-year intervals. Pre-1900 introductions are also estimated. Information is broken down by major ecosystems (terrestrial, freshwater and marine) and selected 'taxonomic' groups: vertebrates, invertebrates, primary producers (vascular plants, bryophytes and algae) and fungi. 2. 'Worst invasive alien species threatening biodiversity in Europe' The list of worst invasive alien species threatening biodiversity in Europe distinguishes a number of the most harmful invasive alien species in Europe, across ecosystems and major taxonomic groups, with respect to their impacts upon European biodiversity and changing abundance or range. The list of worst invasive alien species threatening biodiversity in Europe covers the pan-European area. Two criteria were used to select species for the list: The species is recognized by experts (1) to have a serious adverse impact on biological diversity of Europe. The species, in addition to its adverse impact on biodiversity, may have negative consequences for human activities, health and/or economic interests. (1) Note: this recognition is based on expert view rather than quantifiable data and is therefore subject to debate. The reason for this is lack of quantitative data that lends itself to analysis and comparison among species.
Indicator Specification Impact of climate change on bird populations — 21 May 2010
The Climatic Impact Indicator (CII) measures the divergence between the population trends of bird species projected to expand their range, and those predicted to shrink their range due to climatic change. The indicator is based on a combination of observed population trends monitored from 122 common bird species in 20 European countries over 26 years, and projected potential shrinkage, or expansion, of range size for each of these species at the end of this century (~2070-2099), derived from climatic envelope models. The ensemble in this case is the average climate envelope forecast based on six differing future scenarios.
Indicator Specification Marine trophic index of European seas — 21 May 2010
Trends in mean trophic levels of fisheries landings per European sea.
Indicator Specification Fragmentation of natural and semi-natural areas — 21 May 2010
The indicator shows the change in average size of patches of natural and semi natural areas, on the basis of land cover maps produced by photo-interpretation of satellite imagery.
Indicator Specification application/x-troff-ms Fragmentation of river systems — 21 May 2010
The indicator shows in spatial and quantitative terms, fragmentation due to the presence of artificial structures that a) may affect the passage of migratory fish and so restrict their range and/or abundance and b) changes substantially the natural habitat distribution within rivers and modify their ecological capacity. It thus describes the difference between the potential range and actual range of migratory fish in river systems due to artificial obstacles on the one hand and the change in habitats on the other hand.
Indicator Specification Nutrients in transitional, coastal and marine waters — 21 May 2010
The indicator illustrates trends in, and concentrations of, winter nitrate and phosphate (microgram/l), as well as Nitrogen/Phosphorous ratio in the seas of Europe.
Indicator Specification Freshwater quality — 21 May 2010
This indicator shows: 1. Annual median concentrations in rivers of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and ammonium (NH 4 ). 2. Trends in concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate in rivers, total phosphorus and nitrate in lakes, and nitrate in groundwater bodies.
Indicator Specification Forest: growing stock, increment and fellings — 21 May 2010
Growing stock in forest and other wooded land, classified by forest type and by availability for wood supply, and balance between net annual increment and annual fellings of wood on forest available for wood supply.
Indicator Specification Agriculture: nitrogen balance — 21 May 2010
'Gross nitrogen balance' estimates the potential surplus of nitrogen on agricultural land. This is done by calculating the balance between nitrogen added to an agricultural system (nitrogen input can be taken as a proxy indicator for the general intensity of agricultural management) and nitrogen removed from the system per hectare of agricultural land. The indicator accounts for all inputs to and outputs from the farm, and therefore includes nitrogen input.
Indicator Specification Agriculture: area under management practices potentially supporting biodiversity — 21 May 2010
This indicator is based on three sub-indicators and shows trends in area (as proportion of the total utilised area) of three (not mutually exclusive) categories of agricultural land:  a. High nature value farmland area.  b. Area under organic farming.  c. Area under biodiversity supportive agri-environment schemes. a. 'High nature value farmland area' (ha) indicates the area where farming systems are sustaining a high level of biodiversity. They are often characterised by extensive farming practices, associated with a high species and habitat diversity or the presence of species of European conservation concern. b. 'Area under organic farming' (ha) indicates trends in the organic farming area and the share of the organic farming area in the total utilised agricultural area. Farming is only considered to be organic at EU level if it complies with Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91. c. 'Area under biodiversity supportive agri-environment schemes' (ha) indicates where farming systems are generally focusing on sustainability. For non-EU countries this information is not available. In theory, 'Budget for biodiversity supportive measures' could be used as a proxy indicator but this no longer indicates an 'area' as suggested by the Headline Indicator. The three sub indicators are adopted from the IRENA set of indicators (IRENA 26, 7 and 1 respectively). See www.eea.europa.eu/projects/irena/products . Note: This indicator comprises two elements: a quality parameter (distribution of high nature value farmland) and a response parameter (area under agri-environment and organic farming). Both are relevant for an assessment of environmental sustainability although they are not necessarily linked.
Indicator Specification Fisheries: European commercial fish stocks — 21 May 2010
Annual change of proportion of commercial fish stocks within safe biological limits (SBL) in European Seas and per fisheries management unit.
Indicator Specification Aquaculture: effluent water quality from finfish farms — 21 May 2010
Annual trend in release of nutrients into the marine environment as a result of aquaculture practices.
Indicator Specification Ecological Footprint of European countries — 21 May 2010
The ecological footprint for Europe is a measure of how much biologically productive land and water area Europe requires to produce all the biological resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates, using prevailing technology and management. This area could be located anywhere in the world. This can be compared with the biocapacity of the planet or the one available within a given region. Both biocapacity and the ecological footprint are measured in global hectares.
Indicator Specification Patent applications based on genetic resources — 21 May 2010
The indicator shows the share of European patent applications that are based on genetic resources. The following types of patent applications would be considered 'European patent applications': Patent applications presented to the national intellectual property offices of the pan-European countries; Patent applications presented to the European Patent Office (EPO) under the EPC (European Patent Convention); and Patent applications presented to the European Patent Office or the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) under the PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty), when pan-European countries are mentioned among the designated Contracting States of the PCT in which protection is sought. The CBD (art. 2) defines 'genetic resources' as genetic material of actual or potential value. 'Genetic material,' in turn, is defined as any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity. Nevertheless, there is still no conclusive answer to what resources and uses are covered by these definitions. The methodology proposed for this indicator attempts to address this uncertainty. In this regard, it is also worth noting that while access and benefit-sharing provisions refer solely to genetic resources, the CBD also contains references to the importance of equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities.
Indicator Specification chemical/x-pdb Financing biodiversity management — 21 May 2010
The indicator is a compilation of the value for the specific types of expenditure for biodiversity from the EU budget. Once this value has been obtained, it can then be expressed as a ratio in terms of the overall EU budget, in addition to its expression in absolute terms, which would be calculated in reference to an initial value for the euro to be determined as the baseline expenditure for biodiversity. Income foregone as a result of any of the above circumstances is also a value that has to be included in the calculation as far as this is compensated from the EU budget. The EU processes at present do not provide readily/publicly available data which breaks down their expenditure -- so it is, for instance, not possible to find out what proportion of the agri-environment budget has been spent on biodiversity. However, this data can be made available in future, at which point a baseline year can be chosen and accommodation made for the expansion of the EU and associated changes in budget streams.
Indicator Specification EGT SmartSense Public awareness — 21 May 2010
This indicator is based on a quantitative questionnaire-based survey (Eurobarometer survey on biodiversity) to provide results that can be presented as, for instance (fictional example): '35 % of the European voting population visit a nature reserve at least once a year'. It can include qualitative information, often involving focus groups, for instance (fictional example): 'Discussion in the United Kingdom focus groups has shown that people are highly concerned about the impact of climate change on wildlife'.
Indicator Specification D source code Forest: deadwood — 21 May 2010
Volume of standing and lying deadwood in forest and other wooded land, classified by forest type (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) (MCPFE) definition). In national forest inventories, countries generally classify according to type (standing, snags, lying, species and state of decay).
Indicator Specification D source code GDP - outlook from OECD — 08 Jun 2009
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in an economy, plus any product taxes, minus all subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets and degradation of natural resources. It is expressed in constant 2000 USD.
Indicator Specification Troff document Total population - outlook from UNSTAT — 08 Jun 2009
Population includes all residents regardless of legal status and citizenships. Time horizon: 2005 to 2100 G eographical coverage: Western Europe (WEU): Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom; Central Europe (CEU): Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro; EECCA: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan,  Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; US; Canada; India; China
Indicator Specification C++ source code Precipitation - outlook from UNFCCC — 08 Jun 2009
Precipitation (total volume of water precipitated to a certain surface area for a given period of time) means water, in either liquid or solid state, falling out of the clouds or depositing from the air on the land surface, on various materials or plants. Atmospheric precipitation may take the form of rain, drizzle, snow, sleet, snow pellets or small hail, hail or sleet.
Indicator Specification application/x-troff-ms Hazardous substances in marine organisms — 13 Oct 2010
This indicator describes the levels and trends in European seas of concentrations of seven hazardous substances in marine biota, based on the individual assessment of monitoring data for the following substances: Mercury (Hg) and its compounds Cadmium (Cd) and its compounds Lead (Pb) and its compounds Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)  Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), using chlorinated biphenyls CB28, CB52, CB101, CB118, CB138, CB153, and CB180 as representatives The pesticide DDT (using pp’DDE as a representative of DDT) The pesticide Lindane- 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) The indicator is based on data for substances measured in organisms from the regional seas as follows: Baltic Sea – Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) North-east Atlantic Ocean – blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichtys flesus) Mediterranean Sea – Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovinicialis) Black Sea - Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovinicialis)
Indicator Specification Transport accident fatalities — 01 Jul 2010
The definition of the indicator is the number of persons killed each year in transport accidents by mode expressed both as absolute totals and per million of population. The modes covered by this indicator are road, rail, air and sea.
Indicator Specification Capacity of infrastructure networks — 15 Sep 2010
The question: “are we optimising the use of existing transport infrastructure capacity and moving towards a better-balanced intermodal transport system” has attempted to been answered by referring to data available on network lengths, as described in the rationale section.   The indicator covers roads, motorway, railway (including high speed rail lines – HSR), navigable inland waterway lines (see definitions of the terms below) and pipelines. Additionally it looks at transport infrastructure density in terms of land area (kilometres per km 2 ) and transport infrastructure density in terms of population (km per 1000 inhabitants).   Roads Road : Line of communication (travelled way) using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic, primarily for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels. Included are bridges, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions, crossings and interchanges. Toll roads are also included. Excluded are dedicated cycle paths.   Road network : All roads in a given area.   Motorway : Road, specially designed and built for motor traffic, which does not serve properties bordering on it, and which: Is provided, except at special points or temporarily, with separate carriageways for the two directions of traffic, separated from each other, either by a dividing strip not intended for traffic, or exceptionally by other means; Does not cross at level with any road, railway or tramway track, or footpath; Is specially sign-posted as a motorway and is reserved for specific categories of road motor vehicles. Entry and exit lanes of motorways are included irrespectively of the location of the signposts. Urban motorways are also included.   Railways Railway : Line of communication made up by rail exclusively for the use of railway vehicles. The line of communication is part of space equipped for the execution of transport.   Railway network : All railways in a given area. This does not include stretches of road or water even if rolling stock should be conveyed over such routes, e .g. by wagon-carrying trailers or ferries. Lines solely used for touristic purposes during the season are excluded as are railways constructed solely to serve mines, forests or other industrial or agricultural undertakings and which are not open to public traffic.   High-speed line : A line specially built to allow traffic at speeds generally equal to or greater than 250 kilometres /hour for the main segments. High-speed lines may include connecting lines, in particular junctions with town centre stations located on them, on which speeds may take account of local conditions (adapted from Directive 98/48/EC).   Navigable inland waterways Waterway : River, canal, lake or other stretch of water, which by natural or man-made features is suitable for navigation. Waterways of a maritime character (waterways designated by the reporting country as suitable for navigation primarily by sea-going ships) are included. Waterways also include river estuaries; the boundary being that point nearest the sea where the width of the river is both less than 3 km at low water and less than 5 km at high water.   Navigable inland waterway : A stretch of water, not part of the sea, over which vessels of a carrying capacity of not less than 50 tonnes can navigate when normally loaded. This term covers both navigable rivers and lakes and navigable canals. The length of rivers and canals is measured in mid-channel. The length of lakes and lagoons is measured along the shortest navigable route between the most distant points to and from which transport operations are performed. A waterway forming a common frontier between two countries is reported by both.   Pipelines Oil pipelines : Pipes for the movement of crude or refined liquid petroleum products by pumping. Branch lines are included as well as oil pipelines between the land and drilling platforms at sea. Excluded are oil pipelines whose total length is less than 50 kilometres or whose inside diameter is less than 15 centimetres and oil pipelines used only for military purposes or located entirely within the site boundaries of an industrial operation, as well as oil pipelines that are entirely off-shore (i.e. located solely out in the open sea). International oil pipelines whose total length is 50 kilometres or more are included even if the section in the reporting country is less than 50 kilometres long. Oil pipelines consisting of two (or more) parallel pipelines are to be counted twice (or more). Only units, which actually carry out an activity during the reference period, should be considered. "Dormant" units or those not yet having begun their activity are excluded.   Oil pipeline network : All oil pipelines in a given area. The territory of the area in question includes that part of the seabed allocated to it under a concession.
Indicator Specification text/texmacs Transport infrastructure investments — 03 Sep 2010
The term “transport infrastructure” refers only to infrastructures that are open to the general public. It covers buildings and other constructions as well as machinery and equipment, but it excludes vehicles and rolling stock.   Investment expenditure on infrastructure covers expenditure on new construction and extension of existing infrastructure, including reconstruction, renewal and major repairs of infrastructure.   For rail, infrastructure includes land, permanent way constructions, buildings, bridges and tunnels, as well as immovable fixtures, fittings and installations connected with them (signalisation, telecommunications, catenaries, electricity sub-stations, etc.) as opposed to rolling stock.   For road, maintenance includes surface maintenance, patching and running repairs (work relating to roughness of carriageway’s wearing course, roadsides, etc.).   For Inland waterways expenditures on locks are included.
Indicator Specification Real change in transport prices by mode — 15 Sep 2010
Real price indices of passenger transport based on a fixed transport product in the EU 25 Member States, relative to average consumer price index (HICP). Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices (HICPs) give comparable measures of inflation for the countries and country groups for which they are produced. They are economic indicators that measure the change over time of the prices of consumer goods and services acquired by households. In other words they are a set of consumer price indices (CPIs) calculated according to a harmonised approach and a single set of definitions. In particular, HICPs provide the official measure of consumer price inflation in the euro area for the purposes of monetary policy and the assessment of inflation convergence as required under the Maastricht criteria.
Indicator Specification Fuel prices — 21 Apr 2009
The price of fuel in the EU, including the cost price, excise duty and VAT. Prices are in Euros per litre. Definitions: ‘All petrol’ is a consumption-weighted average price of both leaded and unleaded fuel, corrected using energy-content to the equivalent amount of unleaded petrol. ‘All fuel, unleaded petrol equivalent’ is a consumption-weighted average price of unleaded, leaded petrol and diesel, corrected using energy content to the equivalent amount of unleaded petrol. ‘Nominal’ is the price with no adjustment for inflation. ‘Real’ is the price corrected for inflation, using 2005 as the baseline year. ‘Average, all fuel, unleaded petrol equivalent (real, weighted by consumption)’ is the consumption-weighted average of the ‘All fuel, unleaded petrol equivalent (real)’ line across the full time series.
Indicator Specification External costs and charges per vehicle type — 13 Oct 2010
The external costs of transport are those affecting society, environment and economy, but that are not directly born by the transport user who has caused them (e.g. climate change, infrastructure, air pollution, accidents, noise etc).
Indicator Specification EEA-32 Sulphur dioxide SO2 emissions — 15 Feb 2010
The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of Sulphur Dioxide . The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy industries; road and other transport; industry (processes and energy); other (energy); fugitive emissions; waste; agriculture and other (non energy). Geographical coverage: EEA-32. The EEA-32 country grouping includes countries of the EU-27 (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) EFTA-4 (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway) and Turkey. Temporal coverage: 1990-2007
Indicator Specification Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions — 15 Oct 2010
The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy production and distribution; Energy use in industry; Industrial processes; Road transport; Non-road transport; Commercial, institutional and households; Solvent and product use; Agriculture; Waste; Other. Geographical coverage: EEA-32. The EEA-32 country grouping includes countries of the EU-27 (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) EFTA-4 (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway) and Turkey. Temporal coverage: 1990-2010
Indicator Specification Emissions of primary particulate matter and secondary particulate matter precursors — 25 Oct 2010
This indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of primary particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and 10 µm (PM 10 ) respectively, and secondary particulate matter precursors (nitrogen oxides (NO X ), ammonia (NH 3 ), and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 )). The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy production and distribution; Energy use in industry; Industrial processes; Road transport; Non-road transport; Commercial, institutional and households; Solvent and product use; Agriculture; Waste; Other. Geographical coverage: EEA-32. The EEA-32 country grouping includes countries of the EU-27 (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) EFTA-4 (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway) and Turkey. Temporal coverage: 1990-2010.
Indicator Specification EEA-32 Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions — 15 Feb 2010
The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy industries; road and other transport; industry (processes and energy); other (energy); fugitive emissions; waste; agriculture and other (non energy). G eographical coverage: EEA-32. The EEA-32 country grouping includes countries of the EU-27 (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) EFTA-4 (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway) and Turkey. Temporal coverage: 1990-2007
Indicator Specification EEA-32 ammonia (NH3) emissions — 15 Feb 2010
The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of ammonia. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy industries; road and other transport; industry (processes and energy); other (energy); fugitive emissions; waste; agriculture and other (non energy). Geographical coverage: EU-27 for comparison with EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. Other analyses include data for EFTA-4 (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway) and FYR of Macedonia, Croatia and Turkey. The EEA-32 country grouping includes EU-27, EFTA-4 and Turkey. Temporal coverage: 1990-2007
Indicator Specification EEA-32 Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions — 15 Feb 2010
The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs). The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy industries; road and other transport; industry (processes and energy); other (energy); fugitive emissions; waste; agriculture and other (non energy). Geographical coverage: EEA-32. The EEA-32 country grouping includes countries of the EU-27 (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) EFTA-4 (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway) and Turkey. Temporal coverage: 1990-2007
Indicator Specification Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas — 01 Dec 2008
The indicator shows the fraction of the urban population that is potentially exposed to ambient air [1] concentrations of pollutants [2] in excess of the EU limit value set for the protection of human health. The urban population considered is the total number of people living in cities with at least one monitoring station at a background location. The population data applied for the indicator derives from the Urban Audit , which is conducted at the initiative of the Directorate-General for Regional Policy at the European Commission, in cooperation with Eurostat and the national statistical offices of the 27 current Member States. Currently, the Urban Audit involve more than 620 European cities in 30 EEA member countries. The Urban Audit contains data for over 250 indicators across nine domains (e.g. demography, social aspects, environment, travel and transport). The Urban Audit aims at a balanced and representative sample of cities in Europe. To obtain such a selection, a few simple rules are applied: 1. Approximately 20% of the national population should be covered by the Urban Audit. 2. All capital cities were included. 3. Where possible, regional capitals were included. 4. Both large (more than 250 000 inhabitants) and medium-sized cities (minimum 50 000 and maximum 250 000 inhabitants) were included. 5. The selected cities should be geographically dispersed within each Member State. The selection of cities was prepared in close collaboration between the Directorate-General for Regional Policy, Eurostat and the national statistical institutes. To ensure that large and medium-sized cities are equally represented in the Urban Audit, in some of the larger Member States not all large cities could be included. The Urban Audit works with three different spatial levels: the core city, the larger urban zone (LUZ) and the sub-city district (SCD). For CSI 004 only the the core city level is considered, which is the most important level. To ensure that this level is directly relevant to policy makers and politicians, political boundaries were used to define the city level. In many countries these boundaries are clearly established and well-known. As a result, for most cities the boundary used in the Urban Audit corresponds to the general perception of that city. Due to the highly diverse nature of political boundaries in the European Union, for some cities the political boundary does not correspond to the general perception of that city. In a few cities, Dublin for example, the political boundary of the city is narrower than the general perception of that city. Exceedance of air quality limit values occurs when the concentration of air pollutants exceeds the limit values specified in the first Daughter Directive of the Air Quality Framework Directive for SO 2 , PM 10 [3], NO 2 and the target values for O 3 as specified in the third Daughter Directive. Where there are multiple limit values (see section on Policy Targets), the indicator uses the most stringent case: Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ): the daily limit value; Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ): the annual limit value; Particulate matter (PM 10 ): the daily limit value; Ozone (O 3 ): the target value. [1] 'Ambient air' shall mean outdoor air in the troposphere, excluding work places. [2] 'pollutant' shall mean any substance introduced directly or indirectly by man into the ambient air and likely to have harmful effects on human health and/or the environment as a whole. [3] 'PM 10 ' shall mean particulate matter which passes through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 microgram aerodynamic diameter.
Indicator Specification Transport emissions of greenhouse gases — 21 Apr 2009
Total Greenhouse Gas emissions, CO2, CH4 and N2O from transport, are analysed in this indicator. Total transport emissions can be split into road transport, rail transport, navigation, domestic aviation and other transport. All transport related GHG emissions exclude emissions from international aviation and maritime transport (not included in the Kyoto Protocol).
Indicator Specification text/texmacs Transport emissions of air pollutants — 23 Dec 2008
The indicator is based on the emission trend assessment of CO, CH 4 , NH 3 , NO x , NMVOCs, SO x and primary particulates. These substances are grouped into acidifying substances (NO x , SO x and NH 3 ), particulates (primary: PM 10, PM 2.5 , secondary: NO x , SO x and NH 3 ) and ozone precursors (CH 4 , CO, NMVOC and NO x ). The assessment is made for the total transport sector.
Indicator Specification Exceedances of air quality objectives due to traffic — 21 Apr 2009
The indicator compares concentrations at background stations to those at traffic stations. This comparison provides an estimate of the increased levels of air pollution that the population is exposed to when accessing areas with increased road traffic, as well as a measure of the impact of the technical and non-technical measures adopted to reduce the contribution of the road transport sector to the observed concentrations.  The indicator makes use of the data submitted to Airbase. Data permitting, a pan-European coverage is attempted and the indicator focuses on selected station pairs (traffic and urban background stations) from capital cities across and where data in capital cities is not available the next largest city is chosen. Values are presented for single monitoring stations that provide reliable time series data for the period 2000 to 2011.
Indicator Specification Transport taxes and charges — 01 Jul 2010
The infrastructure taxes and charges indicator is a complex indicator, which includes: Road transport charges (note data is only currently available for the freight sector): Taxes on the possession of freight vehicles or use of road applicable only to vehicles registered in the country (nationality based road charge); Moderately territorial charges: time based charges for the use of road or motorway networks, moderately territorial road charges; including its minimum charge (EUR) and length of minimum period of charge (days) (freight transport); Strongly territorial road charge or distance charge for freight transport; Combined distance and weight based charges for the use of road or motorway networks applied to freight only. So far only Switzerland has implemented it. The indicator could be expanded to include the revenues collected per country, e.g. total toll revenues (EUR) for some countries. Rail infrastructure charges: fixed rail charges for freight and passenger rail; variable rail freight and passenger charge. The indicator could be expanded to include total rail infrastructure charges per country as well as a sum of the total amount of rail freight charges (EUR) and total amount of rail passenger charges (EUR). Information is currently collected for infrastructure charges as well as for total charges, but due to only a few countries submitting data, the comparison is very fragmented.
Indicator Specification Energy efficiency and specific CO2 emissions — 21 Apr 2009
Specific CO 2 emissions are defined as emissions of CO 2 per transport unit (passenger-km or tonne-km), specified by mode (road, rail, inland, maritime, air). CO2 emissions from new passengers cars are expressed in terms of grams of CO2 per kilometer. They are the experimental data measured in the vehicle type approval procedure.
Indicator Specification Specific air pollutant emissions — 21 Apr 2009
Specific emissions are defined as emissions of pollutants per transport unit (passenger-km or tonne-km), specified by mode (road, rail, inland, maritime, air). The pollutants considered include NOx, VOC, PM and CO. For passenger transport, specific emissions are expressed in grams of pollutant (NOx, VOC, PM, CO) per passenger-kilometre. For freight transport, specific emissions are expressed in grams of pollutant (NOx, VOC, PM, CO) per tonne-kilometre.
Indicator Specification Occupancy rates of passenger vehicles — 01 Jul 2010
The indicator consists of the occupancy rate for cars, occupancy rate for buses, occupancy rate for trains and occupancy rate for aircraft expressed as a percentage (see below definitions for each transport mode). The occupancy rate is calculated as a ratio between transport performance (passenger-kilometres) and the supplied vehicle kilometres. A vehicle-kilometre is a unit of measurement representing movement of a vehicle over one kilometre.
Indicator Specification Troff document Load factors for freight transport — 04 Oct 2010
Load Factor: The load factor is the ratio of the average load to total vehicle freight capacity (vans, lorries, train wagons, ships), expressed in terms of vehicle kilometres. Empty running is excluded from the calculation. Empty running is calculated as the percentage of total vehicle-kilometres which are run empty.
Indicator Specification Troff document Size of the vehicle fleet — 01 Jul 2010
Vehicle ownership is defined as number of road vehicles (passenger cars and two-wheelers) per number of inhabitants. The indicator can be extended to include other specified by passenger transport modes (road busses, coaches, rail, maritime, air), although these are not privately owned. Freight transport intensity is defined as number of vehicles per unit of GDP specified by freight transport mode (road, rail, inland, maritime). The share of diesel cars in the entire passenger car fleet is defined as number of diesel vehicles per total number of passenger cars.
Indicator Specification Troff document Average age of the vehicle fleet — 21 Apr 2009
This indicator is defined as the mean age of vehicles specified by vehicle category (passenger cars, light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles, buses, coaches, mopeds and motorcycles).
Indicator Specification Proportion of vehicle fleet meeting certain emission standards — 21 Apr 2009
The vehicle category split in technology classes is defined as the percentage share of conventional, open loop, Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5 vehicles of each vehicle category (petrol and diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles, buses, coaches, mopeds and motorcycles). The vehicle activity split in technology classes is defined as the percentage share of the total activity (vehicle-kilometres) of conventional, open loop, Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5 vehicles of each vehicle category (petrol and diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles, buses, coaches, mopeds and motorcycles).
Indicator Specification European precipitation — 08 Sep 2008
Observed changes in annual precipitation 1961-2006 Modelled precipitation change between 1980-1999 and 2080-2099
Indicator Specification Temperature extremes in Europe — 08 Apr 2005
Observed changes in warm spells and frost days indices 1976-2006 Modelled number of tropical nights over Europe during summer (June-August) 1961-1990 and 2071-2100
Indicator Specification Precipitation extremes in Europe — 08 Sep 2008
Changes in the contribution of heavy rainfall to total precipitation 1961-2006 Percentage of Europe experiencing moderate drought conditions during the 20th century Simulated land average maximum 5-day total precipitation for different European regions (1860-2100) Simulated land average maximum number of consecutive dry days for different European regions (1860-2100)
Indicator Specification Storms and storm surges in Europe — 08 Sep 2008
Storm index for various parts of Europe 1881-2005 Projected relative change of annual maximum daily mean wind speed between 1961-2000 and 2050 using different models Change in the height of a 50-year return period extreme water level event for the end of 21st century for different scenarios
Indicator Specification Air pollution by ozone — 08 Sep 2008
Modelled change in tropospheric ozone concentrations over Europe 1958-2001 and 1978-2001 Change in number of ozone exceedance days between 1993-1996 and 2000-2004 Contribution of temperature increase to the change in ozone exceedance days between 1993-1996 and 2000-2004
Indicator Specification Glaciers — 08 Sep 2008
Cumulative specific net mass balance of glaciers from all European glaciated regions 1946-2006 Modelled remains of the glacier cover in the European Alps for an increase in average summer air temperature of 1 to 5 °C
Indicator Specification Snow cover — 08 Sep 2008
Northern hemisphere snow-cover extent variation 1966-2005 Observed change in spring snow-cover duration 1970-2004 Annual number of days with snow cover over European land areas 1961-1990 and projected change for 2071-2100

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