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Figure C source code Modelled remains of the glacier cover in the European Alps for an increase in average summer air temperature of 1 to 5 oC
Modelled remains of the Alpine glacierisation (climatic accumulation area) according to an increase in summer air temperature of +1 to +5 °C. The total of 100% refers to the ice cover of the reference period (1971–90). The 100%-marks of the other lines refer to the fraction of glacierisation of the corresponding Alpine country. Reading example: A rise in summer air temperature of 3 °C would reduce the Alpine ice cover (red curve) to about 20% of the glacier cover of the reference period (1971–90). The corresponding glacier remains of Switzerland (blue, dashed line) amounts to about 30%, whereas in Austria (black, dashed line) only about 7% of the glacier cover of the reference period is left.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Observed and projected Arctic September sea-ice extent, 1900–2100
Observed and projected Arctic September sea-ice extent
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Observed and projected change in sea level 1970–2008, relative to the sea level in 1990
The solid lines are based on observations smoothed to remove the effects of interannual variability (light lines connect data points). Data in most recent years are obtained via satellite based sensors. The envelope of IPCC (2001) projections is shown for comparison; this includes the broken lines as individual projections and the shading as the uncertainty around the projections.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Observed and projected global mean surface temperatures from 1900, for three IPCC scenarios and the 'Year 2000 constant concentration' pathway
If global greenhouse gas emissions would not be reduced, the 2°C target will be exceeded towards the middle of the 21st century. The horizontal 2°C target line takes into account warming of about 0.6 °C from pre-industrial to 1990. “Likely” ranges in average 2090-2099 warming for all six IPCC scenarios are shown on the right
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Observed global fossil fuel CO2 emissions compared with six scenarios from the IPCC
IPCC scenarios shown are from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC, 2000). Past emission data are from the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the International Energy Agency (IEA)
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Troff document Ocean acidity over the past 25 million years and projected to 2100
The ‘pH’ is a measure of acidity – the lower the number the more acidic the ocean becomes. On a geological timescale, ocean pH has been relatively stable. Recently, oceans have been acidifying fast and this is projected to continue at a rate unprecedented for millions of years.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure text/texmacs Potential climatic tipping elements
Tipping elements are regional-scale features of the climate that could exhibit threshold-type behaviour in response to human-driven climate change – that is, a small amount of climate change at a critical point could trigger an abrupt and/or irreversible shift in the tipping element. The consequences of such shifts for societies and ecosystems are likely to be severe. Question marks indicate systems whose status as tipping elements is particularly uncertain. There are other potential tipping elements that are missing from the map, for example shallow-water coral reefs (Veron et al. 2009) threatened in part by ocean acidification
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Troff document Potential tipping elements with direct impacts on Europe
Colours show population density
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Projected changes in annual and summer precipitation between 1961–1990 and 2071–2100
Projected changes in annual (left) and summer (right) precipitation (%) between 1961-1990 and 2071-2100 as simulated by ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models for the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure D source code Projected changes in annual and summer precipitation between 1961–1990 and 2071–2100
Annual changes in % as simulated by ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models for the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
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