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Publication The contribution of transport to air quality - TERM 2012: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe
TERM 2012 presents the most relevant and up to date information on the main issues regarding transport and environment in Europe, particularly in areas with specific policy targets such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, transport demand levels, noise and other issues. It also offers an overview of the transport sector's impact on air pollutant emissions and air quality. It discusses the contributions made by all modes of transport to direct air pollutant emissions and also to 'secondary' air pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Alongside the recently published Air quality in Europe - 2012 report, TERM 2012 aims to inform the European Commission’s review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution.
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Figure Average annual growth rates for passenger transport, EU-27, 1995-2008
The Figure is showing average annual growth rates of different means of transport within the EU-27 in the period between 1995-2008. (Actual yearly growth rates are of course differing from the averages used in the figure) The values for Air and Sea travel only include domestic and Intra-EU-27 transport. Most numbers are based on estimates and data for Air and Sea are provisional estimates.
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Figure Trends in passenger transport demand and GDP
Trends in passenger transport demand and GDP. The two curves show the development in GDP and passenger transport volumes, while the columns show the level of annual decoupling. Green indicates faster growth in GDP than in transport while red indicates stronger growth in transport than in GDP. The data refer to road, rail and bus modes of passenger transport. Passenger transport demand is defined as the amount of inland passenger- kilometre travelled every year in the EEA32. Inland passenger transport includes transport by passenger cars, buses and coaches, and trains. There is no agreement among the EU Member States on how to attribute the passenger-kilometres of international intra-EU flights, therefore data for air passenger travels are deemed unreliable and not included in this figure. Data from Liechtenstein is not included as it was not available as part of the dataset. The ratio of annual growth of inland passenger transport to GDP, measured in 2000 prices, determines the amount of coupling between GDP and transport. The decoupling indicator, depicted by the green bars, is calculated as unity minus the coupling ratio; so a positive score indicates decoupling (i.e. transport demand grows less slowly than GDP), with a negative score showing the opposite (i.e. transport demand outpaces GDP growth).
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Figure Freight transport demand by mode - EU27
Freight transport demand by mode - EU27
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Figure chemical/x-pdb Mega Tonnes of Oil Equivalent (MTOE) used by transport mode (EEA-30)
Graph with two lines showing total oil delivered fuels for transport including intl. Aviation and international maritime transport. 2050 implicit target reductions also shown as dotted line.
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Figure D source code Number of people (million) exposed to transport noise. Current baseline year: 2007 (reported up to June 2011) (EU-27, Norway and Switzerland)
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Figure Key graph title: current baseline year/date: 2010
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Figure Real price indices of passenger transport based on a fixed transport product in the EU 25 Member States (2005=100)
Real change in passenger and freight transport prices by mode. On average over the period 1998 to 2008, passenger transport prices have increased at a higher rate than consumer prices, with the exception of the purchase of passenger cars, and more recently, air travel. For freight transport prices, no EU-wide data exists, but as an example in the UK road freight prices have increased by a small amount over this period.
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Figure Transport final energy consumption by mode
The total energy consumption in transport in Mtoe from 1990 onwards. Transport modes included are bunkers (sea), air transport (domestic and international), inland navigation, rail transport and road transport (split by passenger and freight).
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Daviz Visualization object code Number of people exposed to transport noise
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European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100