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Figure European average air temperature anomalies (1850 to 2011) in °C over land areas only
The sources of the original data: 1) Black line - HadCRUT3 from the UK Met Office Hadley Centre and University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit, baseline period 1850-1899 (Brohan et al., 2006) with the grey area representing the 95% confidence range, 2) Red line – MLOST from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Centre, baseline period 1880-1899 (Smith et al., 2008), and 3) Blue line - GISSTemp from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Studies, baseline period 1880-1899 (Hansen et al., 2010). Upper graph shows anomalies and lower graph shows decadal average anomalies for the same datasets. Europe is defined as the area between 35° to 70° North and -25° to 30° East, plus Turkey (35° to 40° North and 30° to 45° East).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Main climates of Europe
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Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure D source code Areas of possible establishment of Aedes albopictus (the tiger mosquito) in Europe for 2010 and 2030
Developed by Francis Schaffner (BioSys Consultancy, Zurich), in partnership with Guy Hendrickx/Ernst-Jan Scholte (AviaGIS, Zoersel, Belgium) and Jolyon M Medlock (Health Protection Agency, United Kingdom) for the ECDC TigerMaps project
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Common birds in Europe — population index (1980 = 100)
How to read the graph: since 1980 the number of common farmland birds has declined by around 50 %
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rate of change of global average temperature, 1850-2010 (in ºC per decade)
Lines refer to the decadal rate of change of the global temperature anomalies. Sources of the data are NASA’s GISS mean land-ocean temperature anomalies and the Hadley Center’s HadCRUT3 dataset
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Observed changes in frost days indices 1976-2010 (in days per decade)
How to read the map: Frost day is defined as a day with an average temperature below 0 ºC. Stations with positive trends are in blue and stations with negative trend are in red colour. When stations are in green colour trends are not statistically significant at 25% level.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Annual, winter (December, January, February) and summer (June, July, August) mean temperature deviations in Europe, 1860-2010 (°C)
The lines refer to 10-year moving average European land.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Observed global annual average temperature deviations in the period 1850–2010 (in ºC)
In blue, the source of the original anomalies is the combined UK Met Office Hadley Centre and Climate Research Unit dataset, HadCRUT3. The global mean annual temperature deviations are in relation to the base period 1961-1990. In red, the source of the original anomalies is NASA's GISS dataset. The anomalies are in the source in relation to the base period 1951-1980. The global mean annual temperature deviations have been adjusted to be relative to the period 1850-1899 (HadCRUT3) and 1880 - 1899 (NASA's GISS). All original data is rounded to the nearest 2 decimal places. The trend lines show the 10-year centred moving average of the original anomalies for both datasets relative to the period 1880-1899. The dotted lines show the annual anomalies of the HadCRUT3 (blue) data set and GISS (red) respectively.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure European annual average temperature deviations, 1850-2010, relative to the 1850-1899 average (in °C).
The lines refer to 10-year moving average, the bars to the annual 'land only' European average. The source of the original data is the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia. The European mean annual temperature deviations are in the source in relation to the base period 1961-1990. The annual deviations shown in the chart have been adjusted to be relative to the period 1850-1899 to better monitor the EU objective not to exceed 2°C above pre-industrial values. Over Europe average annual temperatures during the real pre-industrial period (1750-1799) were very similar to those during 1850-99. Europe is defined as the area between 35° to 70° Northern latitude, -25° to 30° Eastern longitude, plus Turkey (=35° to 40° North, 30° to 45° East). The resulting temperature anomalies were obtained using KNMI's climate explorer.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Global and European temperature (CSI 012/CLIM 001/CLIM 003) - Assessment published May 2011
Global The global (land and ocean) average temperature increase between 1850 and 2010 was 0.81 0 C using combined UK Met Office Hadley centre and University of East Anglia - Climate Research Unit HadCRUT3 dataset compared to the 1850 - 1899 period average temperature and 0.89 0 C using Goddard Institute for Space Studies - GISS dataset compared to the 1880 - 1899 period average temperature.  All used temperature records show the 2000s decade (2001 - 2010) was the warmest decade. For the HadCRUT3 and GISS datasets the rate of the global average has increased from around 0.06 0 C per decade over last 100 years, to 0.18 - 0.22 0 C in last decade. The best estimates for projected global warming in this century are a further rise in the global average temperature from 1.8 to 4.0 0 C for different scenarios that assume no further/additional action to limit emissions. The EU global temperature target is projected to be exceeded between 2040 and 2060, taking into account all six IPCC scenarios. Europe Europe has warmed more than the global average. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2001 - 2010) was 1.2 °C above the 1850 - 1899 average, and for the combined land and ocean area 1.0 °C above. Considering the land area, 8 out of the last 13 years were among the warmest years since 1850. High-temperature extremes like hot days, tropical nights, and heat waves have become more frequent, while low - temperature extremes (e.g. cold spells, frost days) have become less frequent in Europe. The average length of summer heat waves over Western Europe doubled over the period 1850 to 2010 and the frequency of hot days almost tripled. The annual average temperature in Europe is projected to rise in this century with the largest warming over eastern and northern Europe in winter, and over Southern Europe in summer. High temperature events across Europe including temperature extremes such as heat waves are projected to become more frequent, intense and longer this century, whereas winter temperature variability and the number of cold and frost extremes are projected to decrease further. According to the projections, the most affected European regions are going to be the Iberian and the Apennine Peninsula and south - eastern Europe.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Global and European temperature
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