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SOER Message Understanding climate change — key message 2
Land and ocean sinks have taken up more than half of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions since 1800, but these natural sinks are vulnerable to climate and land-use change and are highly likely to take up less CO2 in future.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Understanding climate change — key message 3
The extent of Arctic summer sea ice has declined by about 10 % per decade since 1979. The extent of the minimum ice cover in September 2007 was half the size of the normal minimum extent in the 1950s; the third lowest minimum extent occurred in September 2010. The summer ice is also getting thinner and younger.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Understanding climate change — key message 4
Observed global mean sea level rise has accelerated over the past 15 years. From 2002 to 2009 the contributions of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level rise increased. In 2007 the IPCC projected a sea level rise of 0.18 to 0.59 m above the 1990 level by 2100 excluding the effects of dynamic ice sheet processes. Recent projections show a maximum increase of about 1.0 m by 2100, while higher values up to 2.0 m cannot be excluded.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Understanding climate change — key message 5
The vast majority of glaciers in Europe are in retreat. Glaciers in the Alps lost about two-thirds of their volume between 1850 and 2009. The glacierised area in the Alps is projected to decrease to about one-third of the present area for a further rise in Alpine summer temperature of 2 °C.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Understanding climate change — key message 6
Recent research suggests that several key components of the climate system could undergo irreversible change at significantly lower levels of global temperature increase than previously assessed. The most important of these “tipping elements” for Europe are the Greenland ice sheet, Alpine glaciers, and Arctic sea ice.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Mitigating climate change — key message 1
The EU emitted close to 5 billion tonnes (Gt) of CO2-equivalents in 2008. It contributes today around 12 % of annual global anthropogenic direct greenhouse gas emissions.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Mitigating climate change - SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
Figure Sea-level changes in Europe October 1992-May 2007
Based on satellite data; trends in mm/year, inverted barometer included, seasonal signal removed
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Global and European temperature (CSI 012/CLIM 001/CLIM 003) - Assessment published Aug 2014
Global Three independent long records of global average near-surface (land and ocean) annual temperature show that the decade between 2004 and 2013 was 0.75 °C to 0.81 °C warmer than the pre-industrial average. The rate of change in global average temperature has been close to the indicative limit of 0.2°C per decade in recent decades. Variations of global mean near-surface temperature on decadal time scales are strongly influenced by natural factors. Over the last 10-15 years global near-surface temperature rise has been slower than in previous decades. This recent slow-down in surface warming is due in roughly equal measure to reduced radiative forcing from natural factors (volcanic eruptions and solar activity) and to a cooling contribution from internal variability within the climate system (the redistribution of heat to the deeper ocean). The Arctic region has warmed significantly more rapidly than the global mean, and this pattern is projected to continue into the future. The best estimate for further rises in global average temperature over this century is from 1.0 to 3.7°C above the period 1971-2000 for the lowest and highest representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. The uncertainty ranges for the lowest and highest RCP are 0.3–1.7°C and 2.6–4.8°C, respectively. The EU and UNFCCC target of limiting global average temperature increase to less than 2°C above the pre-industrial levels is projected to be exceeded between 2042 and 2050 by the three highest of the four IPCC scenarios (RCPs). Europe Annual average temperature across the European land areas has warmed more than global average temperature, and slightly more than global land temperature. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2004–2013) is 1.3°C above the pre-industrial level, which makes it the warmest decade on record. Annual average land temperature over Europe is projected to continue increasing by more than global average temperature over the rest of this century, by around 2.4 °C and 4.1 °C under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 respectively. Extremes of cold have become less frequent in Europe while warm extremes have become more frequent. Since 1880 the average length of summer heat waves over western Europe doubled and the frequency of hot days almost tripled.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Global and European temperature
Figure Antarctic temperature change and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) over the past 800 000 years
The record is derived from several ice cores from the Antarctic ice sheet, some more than 3 km long
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure C source code Modelled remains of the glacier cover in the European Alps for an increase in average summer air temperature of 1 to 5 oC
Modelled remains of the Alpine glacierisation (climatic accumulation area) according to an increase in summer air temperature of +1 to +5 °C. The total of 100% refers to the ice cover of the reference period (1971–90). The 100%-marks of the other lines refer to the fraction of glacierisation of the corresponding Alpine country. Reading example: A rise in summer air temperature of 3 °C would reduce the Alpine ice cover (red curve) to about 20% of the glacier cover of the reference period (1971–90). The corresponding glacier remains of Switzerland (blue, dashed line) amounts to about 30%, whereas in Austria (black, dashed line) only about 7% of the glacier cover of the reference period is left.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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