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Figure Troff document Ocean acidity over the past 25 million years and projected to 2100
The ‘pH’ is a measure of acidity – the lower the number the more acidic the ocean becomes. On a geological timescale, ocean pH has been relatively stable. Recently, oceans have been acidifying fast and this is projected to continue at a rate unprecedented for millions of years.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure C source code The probability of exceeding 2 °C global warming versus CO2 emitted from 2000–2049
Text bellow the image
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Cumulative specific net mass balance of selected glaciers from European glaciated regions, 1946–2008
Cumulative specific net mass balance of selected glaciers from European glaciated regions
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Publication Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment
Average global air and ocean temperatures are rising, leading to the melting of snow and ice and rising global mean sea level. Ocean acidification results from higher CO2 concentrations. With unabated greenhouse gas emissions, climate change could lead to an increasing risk of irreversible shifts in the climate system with potentially serious consequences. Temperature rises of more than 1.5–2 °C above pre-industrial levels are likely to cause major societal and environmental disruptions in many regions. The atmospheric CO2 concentration needs to be stabilised at 350–400 parts per million (ppm) in order to have a 50 % chance of limiting global mean temperature increase to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels (according to the IPCC in 2007, and confirmed by later scientific insights).
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Thematic assessments
SOER Message (Deprecated) Understanding climate change — key message 1
Global mean temperature in 2009 was 0.7-0.8 °C higher than in pre-industrial times and the decade 2000-2009 was the warmest on record. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded in 2007 that most of the global warming since the middle of the 20th century is very likely to have been due to human influences.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message (Deprecated) Understanding climate change — key message 2
Land and ocean sinks have taken up more than half of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions since 1800, but these natural sinks are vulnerable to climate and land-use change and are highly likely to take up less CO2 in future.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message (Deprecated) Understanding climate change — key message 3
The extent of Arctic summer sea ice has declined by about 10 % per decade since 1979. The extent of the minimum ice cover in September 2007 was half the size of the normal minimum extent in the 1950s; the third lowest minimum extent occurred in September 2010. The summer ice is also getting thinner and younger.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message (Deprecated) Understanding climate change — key message 4
Observed global mean sea level rise has accelerated over the past 15 years. From 2002 to 2009 the contributions of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level rise increased. In 2007 the IPCC projected a sea level rise of 0.18 to 0.59 m above the 1990 level by 2100 excluding the effects of dynamic ice sheet processes. Recent projections show a maximum increase of about 1.0 m by 2100, while higher values up to 2.0 m cannot be excluded.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message (Deprecated) Understanding climate change — key message 5
The vast majority of glaciers in Europe are in retreat. Glaciers in the Alps lost about two-thirds of their volume between 1850 and 2009. The glacierised area in the Alps is projected to decrease to about one-third of the present area for a further rise in Alpine summer temperature of 2 °C.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message (Deprecated) Understanding climate change — key message 6
Recent research suggests that several key components of the climate system could undergo irreversible change at significantly lower levels of global temperature increase than previously assessed. The most important of these “tipping elements” for Europe are the Greenland ice sheet, Alpine glaciers, and Arctic sea ice.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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