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Figure Melting area 1979–2008 and mass change 2003–2009 of the Greenland ice sheet
Note: The maps on the left show the area of the Greenland ice sheet with at least one day of surface melting in summer. The diagram on the left shows the cumulated melt area, which is defined as the annual total sum of every daily ice sheet melt area. For example, if a particular area is melting on 20 days in a given year, it is counted 20 times.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure text/texmacs Potential climatic tipping elements
Tipping elements are regional-scale features of the climate that could exhibit threshold-type behaviour in response to human-driven climate change – that is, a small amount of climate change at a critical point could trigger an abrupt and/or irreversible shift in the tipping element. The consequences of such shifts for societies and ecosystems are likely to be severe. Question marks indicate systems whose status as tipping elements is particularly uncertain. There are other potential tipping elements that are missing from the map, for example shallow-water coral reefs (Veron et al. 2009) threatened in part by ocean acidification
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Troff document Potential tipping elements with direct impacts on Europe
Colours show population density
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Troff document Ocean acidity over the past 25 million years and projected to 2100
The ‘pH’ is a measure of acidity – the lower the number the more acidic the ocean becomes. On a geological timescale, ocean pH has been relatively stable. Recently, oceans have been acidifying fast and this is projected to continue at a rate unprecedented for millions of years.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure C source code The probability of exceeding 2 °C global warming versus CO2 emitted from 2000–2049
Text bellow the image
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure D source code Projected changes in annual and summer precipitation between 1961–1990 and 2071–2100
Annual changes in % as simulated by ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models for the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Cumulative specific net mass balance of selected glaciers from European glaciated regions, 1946–2008
Cumulative specific net mass balance of selected glaciers from European glaciated regions
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Global and European temperature (CSI 012/CLIM 001/CLIM 003) - Assessment published Jun 2012
Global Three independent long records of global average near-surface (land and ocean) annual temperature show that the decade between 2002 and 2011 was 0.77°C to 0.80°C warmer than the pre-industrial average. In recent decades, the rate of change in global average temperature has been close to the 0.2°C per decade. The Arctic has warmed significantly more than the globe, and this is projected to continue into the future. The best estimate for the further rise in global average temperature is between 1.8 and 4.0°C for the lowest and highest SRES marker scenarios (IPCC SRES) that assume no additional political measures to limit emissions. When climate model uncertainties are taken into account, the likely range increases to 1.1 – 6.4 °C. The EU target of limiting global average temperature increase to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels is projected to be exceeded during the second half of this century and likely around 2050, for all six IPCC scenarios. Europe The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the pre-industrial level, which makes it the warmest on record. Annual average land temperature over Europe is projected to continue increasing by more than global land temperature during the 21 st century. By the 2021-2050 period, temperature increases of between 1.0°C and 2.5°C are projected, and by 2071-2100 this increases to between 2.5°C and 4.0°C. The largest temperature increase during 21 st century is projected over eastern and northern Europe in winter and over Southern Europe in summer. Extremes of cold have become less frequent in Europe while warm extremes have become more frequent. Since 1880 the average length of summer heat waves over Western Europe doubled and frequency of hot days almost tripled.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Global and European temperature
Publication Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment
Average global air and ocean temperatures are rising, leading to the melting of snow and ice and rising global mean sea level. Ocean acidification results from higher CO2 concentrations. With unabated greenhouse gas emissions, climate change could lead to an increasing risk of irreversible shifts in the climate system with potentially serious consequences. Temperature rises of more than 1.5–2 °C above pre-industrial levels are likely to cause major societal and environmental disruptions in many regions. The atmospheric CO2 concentration needs to be stabilised at 350–400 parts per million (ppm) in order to have a 50 % chance of limiting global mean temperature increase to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels (according to the IPCC in 2007, and confirmed by later scientific insights).
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Thematic assessments
SOER Message Understanding climate change — key message 1
Global mean temperature in 2009 was 0.7-0.8 °C higher than in pre-industrial times and the decade 2000-2009 was the warmest on record. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded in 2007 that most of the global warming since the middle of the 20th century is very likely to have been due to human influences.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Understanding climate change — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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