EU-25 With existing policies and measures, EU-25 greenhouse gas emissions are projected to be approximately 2 % below 1990 level by 2010. With additional policies and measures greenhouse gas emissions are projected to be approximately 5 % below 1990 level (and slightly below 2004 level). EU-15 Latest projections for 2010 show that the combined effect of existing and additional domestic policies and measures, Kyoto mechanisms  and 'carbon sinks'  would bring emissions down to 8.0 % below the EU-15 base year level. This corresponds exactly to the reduction required under the Kyoto Protocol. With existing domestic  policies and measures, total EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions will only be 0.6 % below base-year levels in 2010  . Taking into account additional domestic policies and measures being planned by Member States, a total EU-15 emissions reduction of 4.6 % is projected. This relies on the assumption that several Member States will cut emissions by more than is required to meet their national targets. The projected use of Kyoto mechanisms by ten Member States  will reduce emissions by 2010 by a further 2.6 %. Finally, the use of carbon sinks according to Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol would contribute an additional 0.8 % (Figures 1 and 2). New Member States Seven new Member States project that they will meet or even over-achieve their Kyoto targets by 2010 with existing domestic policies and measures. However, in most countries emissions will increase between 2004 and 2010. Slovenia projects that it will meet its Kyoto target with additional policies and measures, and CO 2 removals from land-use change and forestry (Figure 3). Cyprus and Malta do not have a target under the Kyoto Protocol. Other EEA member countries EU acceding countries and Iceland were on track to meet or even over-achieve their Kyoto targets. In 2004, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein will with existing measures fall short of their target. Turkey and Croatia have ratified the United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC), but not the Kyoto Protocol.  Joint implementation, clean development mechanism and emissions trading according to the Kyoto Protocol, Art. 6, Art. 12, and Art. 17. These mechanisms allow industrialised countries with emissions limitation and reduction commitments to invest in emissions-savings projects in other countries and use the resulting emission credits to help meet their Kyoto targets.  According to Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol, Parties can make use of CO 2 removals by land use change and forestry activities, i.e. carbon sinks, to achieve their targets.  Domestic policies and measures are those taking place within the national boundaries. Existing policies and measures are those for which one or more of the following applies: (a) national legislation is in force; (b) one or more voluntary agreements have been established; (c) financial resources have been allocated; (d) human resources have been mobilised; (e) an official government decision has been made and there is a clear commitment to proceed with implementation. Additional (planned) policies and measures are options under discussion with a realistic chance of being adopted and implemented in time to influence the emissions during the commitment period.  Without existing policies and measures, total EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions would have been higher than the base-year level. The total effect of the existing policies and measures compared to a theoretical reference scenario without any measures since 1990 would be greater than the 0.6 % reduction referred to here.  Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain.
Data and maps
Progress to greenhouse gas emission targets