Aquaculture production (CSI 033) - Assessment published Sep 2011
European aquaculture production has continued to rapidly increase during the past 15 years due to the expansion of marine production. EU 15 and EFTA countries dominate EU’s aquaculture production, where Norway accounted for nearly 40% of the total European production in 2008, followed by Spain, France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Turkey is the most important producer in the EU7 + EU2 + others, having increased its output by nearly 200% from 2001 to 2008.
The major increase in aquaculture production has been in marine salmon culture in northwest Europe and, to a lesser extent, trout culture throughout western Europe and Turkey.
Aquaculture production intensity, as measured per kilometre of coastline length, is two times higher in EU 15 + EFTA countries compared with EU7 + EU2 + other countries. This intensity is likely to continue to rise as marine aquaculture production increases, particularly since the culture of new species, such as cod, halibut and turbot, is becoming more viable. This increase represents a rise in pressure on adjacent water bodies and associated ecosystems, resulting mainly from nutrient release from aquaculture facilities. The precise level of local impact will mainly vary according to species, production techniques and local natural characteristics.
Data and maps
Status of marine fish stocks (CSI 032) - Assessment published Sep 2011
Most of the EU commercial catch is currently taken from stocks that are assessed. There is, however, a clear trend from north to south: almost all catches in the north come from assessed stocks, whereas in the south this only happens for around half of the catch.
Of the assessed commercial stocks in the NE Atlantic, about one third is outside safe biological limits. In the Mediterranean, about half of the assessed stocks are fished outside safe biological limits. In the Black Sea no stocks are assessed.
Data and maps
Status of marine fish stocks
Heavy metal (HM) emissions (APE 005) - Assessment published Oct 2010
Across the EEA-32 countries, emissions of lead have
decreased by 90%, mercury by 61% and lead by cadmium by 58% between 1990
and 2008. For each substance, the most
significant sources in 2008 are from energy-related sources associated with
fuel combustion, particularly from public power and heat generating facilities
and in industrial facilities. Much progress has been
made since the early 1990s in reducing point source emissions of cadmium and
lead (e.g. emissions from industrial facilities). This has been achieved
through improvements in for example abatement technologies for wastewater
treatment, incinerators and in metal refining and smelting industries, and in
some countries by the closure of older industrial facilities as a consequence
of economic re-structuring. In the case of mercury, the observed decrease in emissions may be largely attributed
to improved controls on mercury cells used in industrial processes (e.g. in the
chlor-alkali process) including the replacement of old mercury cells by
diaphragm or membrane cells, and the general decline of coal use across Europe
as a result of fuel switching. The promotion of unleaded petrol within the EU and in other EEA member
countries through a combination of fiscal and regulatory measures has been a
particular success story. EU Member States have for example completely phased
out the use of leaded petrol, a goal that was regulated by Directive 98/70/EC. From being the largest source of lead in 1990 when it contributed around
75% of total emissions, emissions from the road transport sector decreased
since then by nearly 99%. Nevertheless, the road transport sector still remains
an important source of lead, contributing around 8% of total lead emission in
the EEA-32 region. However since 2002 little progress has been made in reducing
emissions further; total emissions of lead have remained largely constant. Environmental context:
Heavy metals (such as cadmium, lead and mercury) are recognised as being toxic
to biota. All have the quality of being progressively accumulated higher up the
food chain, such that chronic exposure of lower organisms to much lower
concentrations can expose predatory organisms, including humans, to potentially
harmful concentrations. In humans they are also of direct concern because of
their toxicity, their potential to cause cancer and their potential ability to
cause harmful effects at low concentrations. The relative toxic/carcinogenic
potencies of heavy metals are compound specific. Specifically, exposure to
heavy metals has been linked with developmental retardation, various cancers
and kidney damage. Metals are persistent throughout the environment, and
cadmium, lead and mercury are among those heavy metals that are already a focus
of international and EU action. These substances tend not just to be confined
to a given geographical region, and thus are not always open to effective local
control. For example, in the case of cadmium, much is found in fine particles which
do not readily dry deposit, rather having long residence times in the
atmosphere and hence are subject to long-range transport processes.
Data and maps
Heavy metal (HM) emissions
Ammonia (NH3) emissions (APE 003) - Assessment published Oct 2010
EEA-32 emissions of NH 3 have declined by 24% between the years 1990 and 2008. Agriculture was responsible for 94% of NH 3 emissions in 2008.
The reduction in emissions within the agricultural sector is primarily due to a reduction in livestock numbers (especially cattle) since 1990, changes in the handling and management of organic manures and from the decreased use of nitrogenous fertilisers. The reductions achieved in the agricultural sector have been marginally offset by the increased emissions which have occurred during this period in sectors such as transport and to a lesser extent the energy industry and other (non-energy) sectors.
In general, Member States have made excellent progress in reducing emissions below the level of their respective emission ceilings set in the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD). Twenty-two of the EU-27 Member States have already achieved their 2010 ceilings in 2008. Only Finland still needs to make significant further reductions in order to meet their respective ceilings under the NECD. In the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), emissions of ammonia in 2008 were higher than the ceiling in two countries (Liechtenstein and Switzerland), whilst emissions in Norway were below the ceiling limit by 1%.
Environmental context: NH 3 contributes to acid deposition and eutrophication. The subsequent impacts of acid deposition can be significant, including adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems in rivers and lakes and damage to forests, crops and other vegetation. Eutrophication can lead to severe reductions in water quality with subsequent impacts including decreased biodiversity, changes in species composition and dominance, and toxicity effects. NH 3 also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate aerosols, an important air pollutant due to its adverse impacts on human health.
Data and maps
Ammonia (NH3) emissions
Emissions of acidifying substances (CSI 001) - Assessment published Oct 2010
of acidifying pollutants (nitrogen oxides (NO X ), sulphur oxides (SO 2 )
and ammonia (NH 3 ) have decreased significantly in most of the individual
EEA member countries between 1990 and 2008. Emissions
of SO 2 have decreased by 74 %, NO X by 34 % and NH 3
emissions by 24 % since 1990. The EU-27
is on track to meet its overall target to reduce emissions of SO 2
and NH 3 as specified by the EU's NEC Directive (NECD). However a
large number of individual Member States, and the EU as a whole, anticipate
missing the 2010 emission ceilings set for NO X in the NECD, Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the
UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), both
Liechtenstein and Norway also reported NO X emissions in 2008 that
were substantially higher than their respective 2010 ceilings.
Data and maps
Emissions of acidifying substances
Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions (APE 004) - Assessment published Oct 2010
EEA-32 emissions of non-methane
volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) have decreased by 45% since 1990. In 2008,
the most significant sources of NMVOC emissions were the Solvent and product
use' sector (36%) (comprising activities such as paint application,
dry-cleaning and other use of solvents), followed by the road transport sector
(17%). The decline in emissions since
1990 has primarily been due to reductions achieved in the road transport sector
due to the introduction of vehicle catalytic converters and carbon canisters on
petrol cars, for evaporative emission control driven by tighter vehicle
emission standards, combined with limits on the maximum volatility of petrol
that can be sold in EU Member States, as set in fuel quality directives. The reductions in NMVOC emissions have been
enhanced by the switching from petrol to diesel cars in some EU countries, and changes
in the Solvents and product use' sector (a result of the introduction of
legislative measures limiting for example the use and emissions of solvents). The EU-27 Member States have, in
general, made good progress towards reducing emissions in line with their
obligations under the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD). Nineteen
Member States (Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus,
the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland,
Greece, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
the Netherlands, Poland, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden,
and the United Kingdom)
have already reduced their national NMVOC emissions below the level of the
emission ceilings set in the NECD. However, three Member States (Denmark,
Germany and Spain) reported 2008 emissions significantly above their respective
emission ceilings and therefore require significant reductions to have been
made in 2009 and 2010 in order to comply with the NECD. Emissions in 2008 for the three
non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg
protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) were all well below their
respective ceilings. Environmental context: Non-methane volatile
organic compounds (NMVOCs) are a collection of organic compounds that differ
widely in their chemical composition but display similar behaviour in the atmosphere.
NMVOCs are emitted into the atmosphere from a large number of sources including
combustion activities, solvent use and production processes. NMVOCs contribute
to the formation of ground level (tropospheric) ozone. In addition, certain
NMVOC species such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene are hazardous to human health.
Quantifying the emissions of total NMVOCs provides an indicator of the
emissions of the most hazardous NMVOCs.
Data and maps
Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions
Sulphur dioxide SO2 emissions (APE 001) - Assessment published Oct 2010
EEA-32 emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) have decreased by 74% between 1990 and 2008. In 2008, the most significant source of SO2 emissions was the 'Energy production and distribution' sector (69%), followed by emissions occurring from 'Energy use in industry' (14%) and in the 'Commercial, institutional and households' (9%) sector. The reduction in emissions since 1990 has been achieved as a result of a combination of measures, including fuel-switching in energy-related sectors away from high sulphur-containing solid and liquid fuels to low sulphur fuels such as natural gas, the fitting of flue gas desulphurisation abatement technology in industrial facilities and the impact of European Union directives relating to the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels. Twenty-three of the EU-27 Member States have already reduced their national SO2 emissions below the level of the 2010 emission ceilings set in the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD). The remaining Member States were close to meeting their ceilings under the NECD, except for Malta where emissions in 2008 were significantly higher than their NECD ceiling. Significant reductions will thus have been needed in 2009 and 2010 to ensure compliance. Emissions in 2008 for the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) were also below the level of the respective 2010 ceilings. Environmental context: Sulphur dioxide is emitted when fuels containing sulphur are combusted. It is a pollutant which contributes to acid deposition which in turn can lead to potential changes occurring in soil and water quality. The subsequent impacts of acid deposition can be significant, including adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems in rivers and lakes and damage to forests, crops and other vegetation. SO2 emissions also contribute to formation of particulate matter in the atmosphere, an important air pollutant in terms of its adverse impact on human health.
Data and maps
Sulphur dioxide SO2 emissions
Emissions of ozone precursors (CSI 002) - Assessment published Oct 2010
Emissions of all ground-level ozone precursor
pollutants have decreased across the EEA-32 region between 1990 and 2008; nitrogen
oxides (NO X ) by 34%, non-methane volatile organic compounds
(NMVOCs) by 45%, carbon monoxide (CO) by 56% and methane (CH 4 )
This decrease has been achieved mainly as a
result of the introduction of catalytic converters for vehicles. These
changes have significantly reduced emissions of NO X and CO from
the road transport sector, the main source of ozone precursor emissions.
The EU-27 is still some way from meeting its 2010
target to reduce emissions of NO X , one of the two ozone
precursors (NO X and NMVOC) for which emission limits exist
under the EU's NEC Directive (NECD). Whilst total NMVOC emissions in the
EU-27 were below the NECD limit in 2008, a number of individual Member
States anticipate missing their ceilings for one or either of these two
Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the
UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein,
Norway and Switzerland),
all three countries reported NMVOC emissions in 2008 that were lower than their
respective 2010 ceilings. However both Liechtenstein
reported NO x emissions in 2008 that were substantially higher than
their respective 2010 ceilings.
Data and maps
Emissions of ozone precursors
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (APE 002) - Assessment published Oct 2010
EEA-32 emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO X ) have decreased by 34% between 1990 and 2008. In 2008, the most significant sources of NO X emissions were the road transport sector (39%), combustion processes from within the energy industries sector (21%), the commercial, institutional and households sector (15%) and from industrial energy use (14%). The largest reduction of emissions since 1990 has occurred in the road transport sector. These reductions have been achieved despite the general increase in activity within this sector since the early 1990s and have primarily been achieved as a result of fitting three-way catalysts to petrol fuelled vehicles. In the electricity/energy production sector reductions have also occurred, in these instances as a result of measures such as the introduction of combustion modification technologies (such as use of low NO X burners), implementation of flue-gas abatement techniques (e.g. NO X scrubbers and selective (SCR) and non-selective (SNCR) catalytic reduction techniques) and fuel-switching from coal to gas. The National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD) specifies NO X emission ceilings for Member States that must be met by 2010. In general, the newer EU Member States have made substantially better progress towards meeting their respective NO X ceilings than the older Member States of the EU-15. Ten of the twelve post-2004 Member States have already reduced emissions beyond what is required under the NECD, and one (Slovenia) reported NO X emissions just 5% above the NECD target in 2008. In contrast, only one EU-15 Member State (Finland) had 2008 emissions within its respective national ceiling. Many Member States though require a significant reduction of NO X emissions to have been made in 2009 and 2010 if they are to meet their obligations under the NECD. Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) only for Switzerland were emissions in 2008 below the level of the respective 2010 ceilings Environmental context: NO X contributes to acid deposition and eutrophication. The subsequent impacts of acid deposition can be significant, including adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems in rivers and lakes and damage to forests, crops and other vegetation. Eutrophication can lead to severe reductions in water quality with subsequent impacts including decreased biodiversity, changes in species composition and dominance, and toxicity effects. It is NO 2 that is associated with adverse affects on human health, as at high concentrations it can cause inflammation of the airways. NO 2 also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate aerosols and tropospheric ozone in the atmosphere - both are important air pollutants due to their adverse impacts on human health.
Data and maps
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions
Nutrients in transitional, coastal and marine waters (CSI 021) - Assessment published Jul 2011
Decreasing nutrient concentrations were found in the North Sea and in the Baltic Sea. In the Mediterranean and Black Sea, the lack of temporally and spatially comprehensive time series does not allow an overall assessment. In 2008, the highest concentrations of oxidized nitrogen were found in the Gulf of Riga, and in Lithuanian, Swedish, German, Belgian, and Scottish coastal waters. Between 1985 and 2008, 12% of all the stations in the European seas reported to the EEA showed decreasing trends of oxidized nitrogen concentrations. These trends were more evident in the open Baltic Sea and in the Dutch and German coastal waters in the North Sea. In 2008, the highest orthophosphate concentrations were found at Finnish coastal stations in the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, German, Belgian, French, and Scottish coastal waters. Between 1985 and 2008, 15% of all the stations in the European seas reported to the EEA showed a decrease in orthophosphate concentrations, mainly because of improved waste water treatment. This decrease was most evident in Norwegian, Lithuanian, Danish, Belgian and Dutch coastal water stations, and in the open waters of the North and Baltic Seas.
Data and maps
Nutrients in transitional, coastal and marine waters