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Figure 36th highest 24-hour mean PM10 concentration observed at urban background stations, 1997-2009 (EU-27)
Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Greece, Luxembourg and Malta, are not included due to the geographical coverage of the Urban Audit.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Trend in NO2 and NOX annual mean concentrations (2001–2010) per station type (top); percentage frequency distribution of estimated annual change of NO2 annual mean concentrations at urban stations and at traffic stations (bottom)
All stations in EU Member States, with at least 75 % data coverage for at least eight years were included in the analysis. Concentrations per station type are given in μg/m3. In the top two diagrams a geographical bias exists towards central Europe where there is a higher density of stations. In the percentage frequency distribution graphs, closed bars denote stations showing a statistically significant trend, open bars denote stations with a non-significant trend. Statistically significant trends (level of significance 0.1) are calculated by applying the Mann-Kendall test. The applied method is described in de Leeuw, 2012.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Percentage of population exposed to NO2 annual concentrations in urban areas, 2001-2011 (EU-27)
The annual mean limit value is 40 µg NO2/m3. Over the years 2001-2010 the total population, for which exposure estimates are made, increased from 93 to 124 million people due to an increasing number of monitoring stations reporting air quality data under the Exchange of Information Decision. Year-to-year variations in exposure classes are partly caused by the changes in spatial coverage. Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Greece and Malta, are not included due to missing availability of operational urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations in the Urban Audit cities.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Percentage of urban population resident in areas for days per year with ozone concentrations over the long-term objective for protection of human health, 2001-2011 (EU-27)
The target value is 120 µg O3/m3 as daily maximum of 8 hour mean, not to be exceeded more than 25 days per calendar year, averaged over three years and to be achieved where possible by 2010. Over the years 2001-2010 the total population for which exposure estimates are made, increased from 88 to 118 million people due to an increasing number of monitoring stations reporting under the Exchange of Information Decision. Year-to-year variations in exposure classes are partly caused by the changes in spatial coverage. Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Greece and Malta is not included due to missing availability of operational urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations in the Urban Audit cities.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Daviz Visualization Percentage of urban population resident in areas for days per year with PM10 concentration exceeding daily limit value
Located in Data and maps Data visualisations
Figure Ozone 2010 - Target value for the protection of vegetation
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set a target value and a long term objective value for ozone (O3) for the protection of vegetation. Target value: the AOT40 may not exceed 18000 (µg/m3) per hour in the period from 1 May to 31 July averaged over five years. Long term objective value: the AOT40 may not exceed 6000 (µg/m3) per hour in the period from 1 May to 31 July within a calendar year. AOT40 (expressed in (μg/m3) ∙ hours) means the sum of the difference between hourly concentrations greater than 80 μg/m3 (= 40 parts per billion) and 80 μg/m3 over a given period using only the one-hour values measured between 8.00 and 20.00 Central European Time (CET) each day. More information is provided in Annex VII of directive (2008/EC/50).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Daviz Visualization Distance-to-target for non-methane volatile organic compounds
Located in Data and maps Data visualisations
Figure Sulphur dioxide - Annual limit value for the protection of ecosystems
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set two limit values for sulphur dioxide (SO2) for the protection of vegetation within the zones designated by member states: the SO2 annual mean value may not exceed 20 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) and the SO2 mean value for the winter period (1 October to 31 March) may not exceed 20 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Benzene - Annual limit value for the protection of human health
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set a limit value for benzene (C6H6) for the protection of human health: the annual mean value may not exceed 5 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). The limit value comes into effect for data measured from 1 January 2010. During 2009 a margin of tolerance was in place so the annual mean should not exceed 6 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Particulate matter (PM10) - Daily limit value for the protection of human health
In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set two limit values for particulate matter (PM10) for the protection of human health: the PM10 daily mean value may not exceed 50 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) more than 35 times in a year and the PM10 annual mean value may not exceed 40 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). In some areas time extensions have been granted by DG Environment for meeting these limit values. Information about time extensions is provided by DG Environment at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/legislation/time_extensions.htm
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
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