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Figure C source code header Trend in PM10 (left graph, 2001–2010) and PM2.5 (right graph, 2005–2010) concentrations per station type
All stations in EU Member States, with at least 75 % data coverage for at least eight years (PM10) or six years (PM2.5), were included in the analysis. Concentrations per station type are given in μg/m3. In the diagrams a geographical bias exists towards central Europe where there is a higher density of stations.
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Figure Attainment situation for PM10, reference years 2010, 2005, 2001
The graphs are based on the 90.4 percentile of daily mean concentration values corresponding to the 36th highest daily mean; they present the range of concentrations at all station types (in μg/m3) officially reported by the EU Member States and how the concentrations relate to the limit value set by EU legislation (marked by the red line). The diagram indicates the lowest and highest observations, the means and the lower and upper quartiles. The lower quartile splits the lowest 25 % of the data and the upper quartile splits the highest 25 % of the data.
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Figure Annual changes in concentrations of PM10, O3 and NO2 in the period 2001–2010
Statistically significant trends (level of significance 0.1) are calculated by applying the Mann-Kendall test. The trend slopes are indicated with coloured dots when statistically significant. Red dots indicate increasing concentrations. The applied method is described in de Leeuw, 2012
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Figure Percentage of urban population resident in areas for days per year with PM10 concentration exceeding daily limit value, 2001-2010 (EU-27)
The limit value is 50 µg PM10/m3 (24 hour average, i.e. daily), not to be exceeded more than 35 times a calendar year and to be met by 2005. Over the years 2001-2010 the total population for which exposure estimates are made, increased from 68 to 107 million people due to an increasing number of monitoring stations reporting air quality data under the Exchange of Information Decision. Year-to-year variations in exposure classes are partly caused by the changes in spatial coverage. Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Greece and Malta are not included due to missing availability of operational urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations in the Urban Audit cities.
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Data Octet Stream Up-to-date provisional air quality data in Europe (near real-time data)
Real-time data from around several thousand air quality measurement stations across Europe are transmitted to the EEA in Copenhagen on an hourly basis. Since the data must be as 'real-time' as possible, the data are displayed as soon as practical after the end of each hour.
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Publication European Union emission inventory report 1990–2010 under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)
This document is the annual European Union emission inventory report under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The report and its accompanying data are provided as an official submission to the secretariat for the Executive Body of the LRTAP Convention by the European Commission on behalf of the European Union. The report is compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA).
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Publication Particulate matter from natural sources and related reporting under the EU Air Quality Directive in 2008 and 2009
Much of the air pollution that damages human health and the environment today is the result of human activities. But natural sources also emit air pollutants, contributing to the exposure of European citizens and ecosystems to bad air quality „ and potentially undermining EU Member State efforts to meet the air quality standards set out in EU legislation.
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Figure Percentage of urban population resident in areas for days per year with PM10 concentration exceeding daily limit value, 1997-2009 (EU-27)
The limit value is 50 µg PM10/m3 (24 hour average, i.e. daily), not to be exceeded more than 35 times a calendar year and to be met by 2005. Over the years 1997-2009 the total population for which exposure estimates are made, increased from 25 to 110 million people due to an increasing number of monitoring stations reporting air quality data under the Exchange of Information Decision. Year-to-year variations in exposure classes are partly caused by the changes in spatial coverage. Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Greece, Luxembourg and Malta, are not included due to the geographical coverage of the Urban Audit.
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Figure 36th highest 24-hour mean PM10 concentration observed at urban background stations, 1997-2009 (EU-27)
Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Greece, Luxembourg and Malta, are not included due to the geographical coverage of the Urban Audit.
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Figure Changes (%) in energy related emissions of primary PM10 and PM2.5 by source category, 2005-2009, EEA-32
‘Energy combustion’ includes all energy-related emissions minus fugitives the graph shows the emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less, emitted directly into the atmosphere)
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European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100