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Sound and independent information
on the environment

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Figure text/texmacs Potential climatic tipping elements
Tipping elements are regional-scale features of the climate that could exhibit threshold-type behaviour in response to human-driven climate change – that is, a small amount of climate change at a critical point could trigger an abrupt and/or irreversible shift in the tipping element. The consequences of such shifts for societies and ecosystems are likely to be severe. Question marks indicate systems whose status as tipping elements is particularly uncertain. There are other potential tipping elements that are missing from the map, for example shallow-water coral reefs (Veron et al. 2009) threatened in part by ocean acidification
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Growth in the productivity of labour, energy and materials, EU-15 and EU-12
This figure shows the development of labour productivity, material productivity, and energy productivity in EU15 and EU12.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Use of freshwater resources (CSI 018) - Assessment published Dec 2010
Over the last 10-17 years the Water Exploitation Index (WEI) decreased in 24 EEA countries (Fig.1), as a result of water saving and water efficiency measures. Total water abstraction decreased about 12 %, but one fifth  of Europe's population still lives in water-stressed countries (approx. 113 million inhabitants).
Located in Data and maps Indicators Use of freshwater resources
Figure Main drought events in Europe, 2000–2009
The map shows the main drought events in Europe
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Pressure intensity (unit pressure per Euro spent) of household consumption categories, 2005
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Ecological footprint compared with biocapacity (left), and different components of the footprint (right) in EEA countries, 1961–2006
The ecological footprint is a measure of the area needed to support a population's lifestyle. This includes the consumption of food, fuel, wood, and fibres. Pollution, such as carbon dioxide emissions, is also counted as part of the footprint. Biocapacity measures how biologically productive land is. It is measured in 'global hectares': a hectare with the world average biocapacity. Biologically productive land includes cropland, pasture, forests and fisheries
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Status of fish stocks in International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) fishing regions of Europe
The map shows the status of the fish stocks in ICES and GFCM fishing regions of Europe in 2008. Status of fish stocks was assessed in 2009 (ICES) and from 2002-2009 (GFCM), although data refers to 2008 in the ICES regions and 2005 in the GFCM regions.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure D source code Percentage of municipal waste landfilled in EEA countries, 2003 and 2008; and development of municipal waste management in EU-27, 1995 to 2008
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Conservation status of assessed habitats in EU‑25
- Annex I to the Habitats Directive includes a wide variety of habitats which are divided into nine groups of related habitat types such as forests and grassland. - Between these groups, dune habitats, grasslands and bogs, mires and fens have the worst conservation status.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Net land-cover changes 2000–2006 in Europe – total area change in hectares and percentage change
The figure shows the net land-cover changes 2000–2006 in Europe, total area change in hectares and percentage change.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Phone: +45 3336 7100