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Indicator Assessment Nutrients in freshwater (CSI 020) - Assessment published Jan 2009
Nitrate concentrations in Europe's groundwaters increased in the first half of 1990s and have then  remained relatively constant. The average nitrate concentration in European rivers has decreased approximately 10 % since 1998 from 2.8 to 2.5 mg N/l, reflecting the effect of measures to reduce agricultural inputs of nitrate. Nitrate levels in lakes are in general much lower than in rivers, but also in lakes there has been a 15 % reduction in the average nitrate concentration. Phosphorus concentrations in European rivers and lakes generally decreased during the last 14 years, reflecting the general improvement in wastewater treatment and reduced phosphate content of detergents over this period.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Nutrients in freshwater
Indicator Assessment Chlorophyll in transitional, coastal and marine waters (CSI 023) - Assessment published Jan 2009
The highest summer chlorophyll-a concentrations were observed in coastal areas and estuaries and are at many locations associated with nutrient inputs from major rivers. Of the 413 stations reported to the EEA in 2005 with more than 5 years of observations, decreasing trends in summer chlorophyll-a concentrations were found at 7% of stations, increasing trends were found at 8% of stations, and the majority of stations (85%) indicate no statistically significant change in concentration. The stations with descreasing trends are located either in the Baltic Sea or along the coast of Italy.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Chlorophyll in transitional, coastal and marine waters
Indicator Assessment Bathing water quality (CSI 022) - Assessment published Jan 2009
The quality of water at designated bathing beaches in Europe (coastal and inland) has improved throughout the 1990s into 2000's. In 2006, 96 % of coastal bathing waters and 89 % of inland bathing waters complied with the mandatory standards.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Bathing water quality
Indicator Assessment Use of freshwater resources (CSI 018) - Assessment published Jan 2009
Over the last 10-15 years the Water Exploitation Index (WEI) decreased in 21 EEA countries (Fig.1), mainly in the  in the eastern countries, due to economic and institutional changes and some western countries, as a result of water saving and water efficiency measures. Total water abstraction decreased about 10 %, but nearly half of Europe's population still lives in water-stressed countries (approx. 266 million inhabitants).
Located in Data and maps Indicators Use of freshwater resources
Indicator Assessment Oxygen consuming substances in rivers (CSI 019) - Assessment published Jan 2009
Concentrations of BOD and total ammonium have decreased in European rivers in the period 1992 to 2006, corresponding to the general improvement in wastewater treatment (Fig. 1).   EEA water quality indicators have up to now presented European and regional overviews and country comparison. However, water quality data at national level may not be relevant or sufficient for some countries, and EEA will in the coming years change its indicators to reflect concentration levels and trends at River Basin District (RBD) level to duly reflect local and regional differences in water quality. See also WISE interactive maps: Mean annual BOD in rivers and Mean annual Total Ammonium in rivers
Located in Data and maps Indicators Oxygen consuming substances in rivers
Indicator Assessment Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances (CSI 006) - Assessment published Jan 2009
Implementation of the Montreal Protocol has led to a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere. The total production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in EEA member countries has decreased strongly since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, and it is practically zero nowadays. However, the ozone hole expanded in 2008 to 27 million square kilometres, equivalent to about 6 times the territory of the EU.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances
Indicator Assessment Progress in management of contaminated sites (CSI 015/LSI 003) - Assessment published Aug 2007
Soil contamination requiring clean up is present at approximately 250000 sites in the EEA member countries, according to recent estimates. And this number is expected to grow. Potentially polluting activities are estimated to have occurred at nearly 3 million sites (including the 250000 sites already mentioned) and investigation is needed to establish whether remediation is required. If current investigation trends continue, the number of sites needing remediation will increase by 50% by 2025. By contrast, more than 80000 sites have been cleaned up in the last 30 years in the countries where data on remediation is available. Although the range of polluting activities (and their relative importance as localised sources of soil contamination) may vary considerably across Europe, industrial and commercial activities as well as the treatment and disposal of waste are reported to be the most important sources. National reports indicate that heavy metals and mineral oil are the most frequent soil contaminants at investigated sites, while mineral oil and chlorinated hydrocarbons are the most frequent contaminants found in groundwater. A considerable share of remediation expenditure, about 35% on average, comes from public budgets. Although considerable efforts have been made already, it will take decades to clean up a legacy of contamination.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Progress in management of contaminated sites
Indicator Assessment Land take (CSI 014) - Assessment published Nov 2005
Land take by the expansion of artificial areas and related infrastructure is the main cause of the increase in the coverage of land at the European level. Agricultural zones and, to a lesser extent, forests and semi-natural and natural areas, are disappearing in favour of the development of artificial surfaces. This affects biodiversity since it decreases habitats, the living space of a number of species, and fragments the landscapes that support and connect them.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Land take
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100