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Figure Change in the distribution of Aedes albopictus in Europe
Areas marked as ‘2011’ indicate that the tiger mosquito was detected in 2011 for the first time. They include areas of known geographical expansion of A. albopictus in France, northern Italy and Spain where vector surveillance has been in place since 2008 but also areas in Albania, Greece, and central and southern Italy, where the first detection of the vector in 2011 could be the result of increased vector surveillance rather than actual geographical expansion. ‘2008–2011’ refers to all areas where the vector has been present before 2011. Indoor presence corresponds to the presence recorded in greenhouses.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure D source code Number of reported extreme weather events and wildfire
This figure shows the yearly number of extreme weather events (cold, storm, flood and wet mass movement, heat wave, wildfire, drought and drymass movement dry) in EEA member and collaborating countries in the period 1980 - 2011.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Change of flowering date for winter wheat
This figure shows the rate of change of the flowering date for winter wheat. The flowering date is defined as the day at which a modelization of the winter wheat reaches a development state of 100 in a scale 0 - 200 defined for the WOFOST growth model (Van Keulen H, Wolf J (1986) Modelling of agricultural production: weather soils and crops, Simulation monographs. Pudoc, Wageningen). The map shows the yearly change rate in days per year calculated for the period January 1975 - December 2010.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rate of change of the meteorological water balance
This figure shows the rate of change of the ‘water balance’. The map provides an estimate increase (red in map) or decrease (blue in map) of the volume of water required from irrigation assuming that all other factors are unchanged and given that there is an irrigation demand.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Troff document Change in the number of frost-free days per year
This figure shows the rate of change in the growing season length (defined as the number of frost-free days per year) during the period January 1975 – December 2010.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Global and European temperature (CSI 012/CLIM 001) - Assessment published Jun 2012
Global Three independent long records of global average near-surface (land and ocean) annual temperature show that the decade between 2002 and 2011 was 0.77°C to 0.80°C warmer than the pre-industrial average. In recent decades, the rate of change in global average temperature has been close to the 0.2°C per decade. The Arctic has warmed significantly more than the globe, and this is projected to continue into the future. The best estimate for the further rise in global average temperature is between 1.8 and 4.0°C for the lowest and highest SRES marker scenarios (IPCC SRES) that assume no additional political measures to limit emissions. When climate model uncertainties are taken into account, the likely range increases to 1.1 – 6.4 °C. The EU target of limiting global average temperature increase to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels is projected to be exceeded during the second half of this century and likely around 2050, for all six IPCC scenarios. Europe The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the pre-industrial level, which makes it the warmest on record. Annual average land temperature over Europe is projected to continue increasing by more than global land temperature during the 21 st century. By the 2021-2050 period, temperature increases of between 1.0°C and 2.5°C are projected, and by 2071-2100 this increases to between 2.5°C and 4.0°C. The largest temperature increase during 21 st century is projected over eastern and northern Europe in winter and over Southern Europe in summer. Extremes of cold have become less frequent in Europe while warm extremes have become more frequent. Since 1880 the average length of summer heat waves over Western Europe doubled and frequency of hot days almost tripled.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Global and European temperature
Figure Trend in annual temperature across Europe
Grid boxes outlined in solid black contain at least three stations and so are likely to be more representative of the grid box. High confidence in the long-term trend is shown by a black dot. (In the map above, this is the case for all grid boxes.) Area averaged annual time series of percentage changes and trend lines are shown below each map for one area in northern Europe (green line, 5.6 ° to 16.9 °E and 56.2 ° to 66.2 °N) and one in south-western Europe (purple line, 350.6 ° to 1.9 °E and 36.2 ° to 43.7 °N).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Trends in cool nights across Europe
How to read the map: Cool nights are defined as being below the 10th percentile of the daily minimum temperature. Grid boxes outlined in solid black contain at least 3 stations and so are likely to be more representative of the grid-box. Higher confidence in the long-term trend is shown by a black dot. Area averaged annual time series of percentage changes and trend lines are shown below each map for one area in northern Europe (Green line, 5.6 to 16.9 E and 56.2 to 66.2 N) and one in south-western Europe (Pink line, 350.6 to 1.9 E and 36.2 to 43.7 N).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Trends in warm days across Europe
How to read the map: Warm days are defined as being above the 90th percentile of the daily maximum temperature. Grid boxes outlined in solid black contain at least 3 stations and so are likely to be more representative of the grid-box. Higher confidence in the long-term trend is shown by a black dot. Area averaged annual time series of percentage changes and trend lines are shown below each map for one area in northern Europe (Green line, 5.6 to 16.9 E and 56.2 to 66.2 N) and one in south-western Europe (Pink line, 350.6 to 1.9 E and 36.2 to 43.7 N).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Global average air temperature anomalies (1850 to 2011) in degrees Celsius (°C) relative to a pre-industrial baseline period
Global average air temperature anomalies (1850 to 2011) in degrees Celsius (°C) relative to a pre-industrial baseline period for 3 analyses of observations: 1) Black line - HadCRUT3 from the UK Met Office Hadley Centre and University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit, baseline period 1850-1899 (Brohan et al., 2006) with the grey area representing the 95% confidence range, 2) Red line – MLOST from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Centre, baseline period 1880-1899 (Smith et al., 2008), and 3) Blue line - GISSTemp from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Studies, baseline period 1880-1899 (Hansen et al., 2010). Upper graph shows annual anomalies and lower graph shows decadal average anomalies for the same datasets.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100