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Figure application/java-vm Changing middle class
Trends and projections (2000- 2050) of middle-class consumption, showing the growing importance of middle-class consumers in China and India.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Highlight text/texmacs CO2 emissions calculations: explaining concepts and methodologies
There are several methods for accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The European Environment Agency (EEA) explains the key characteristics of different emissions accounting methods, highlighting the need for methodological improvements as well as better data coverage and quality.
Located in News
Figure CO2 emissions caused by consumption in selected EU countries, 2004
This figure identifies direct and indirect CO2 emissions caused by total national consumption in 2004 in 14 EU countries with available data for carrying out the calculations. CO2 caused by consumption are split into three components: 1) CO2 emitted abroad during the production of imported goods for direct consumption 2) CO2 emitted induced by domestic production for the home market 3) CO2 emitted directly by households through burning of fossil fuels for cooking, heating and in private cars
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Troff document CO2 emissions from passenger transport (use phase only), EU-27, 2000 and 2005
The figure shows total CO2-emissions (attention: not CO2-equivalents; CH4 and N2O were left out due to data-constraints and insignificance as percentage of total emissions) for different means of transports’ usage-phase in the EU-27. Increasing travel resulted in increased direct emissions of CO2 from 2000 to 2005. Modes of transport with high CO2-intensity are private cars and aviation.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Article Consuming unsustainably
Key message: A major reason why consumption negatively affects the environment and causes over-use of resources is because the costs to society of environmental and resource degradation are not fully reflected in the prices of goods and services. Many goods are cheap even though they harm the environment, ecosystems or human health. (SOER 2010)
Located in Signals — well-being and the environment Signals 2011 Articles
SOER Message Consumption and environment — key message 1
Consumption of goods and services in the EEA member countries is a major driver of global resource use – and associated environmental impacts – as the levels of European demand exceed the continent’s ability to meet them from within its borders.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Consumption and the environment - SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Consumption and environment — key message 2
Europeans spend most on food and drink, housing and mobility, three areas that also cause the greatest environmental pressures per Euro spent. Tourism is a fourth area with high and growing environmental pressures from European consumption, both within the EU and elsewhere. Overall consumption trends in the areas of housing, mobility, and tourism generally seem to be environmentally unfavourable. Further analysis is required regarding food consumption trends.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Consumption and the environment - SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Consumption and environment — key message 3
The growth in global trade is resulting in an increasing share of the environmental pressures and impacts caused by consumption in EU countries being felt beyond their borders. While some of this shift is between EU countries, a large part is outside the EU and beyond the remit of current EU production-related policies.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Consumption and the environment - SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Consumption and environment — key message 4
There is major potential for reducing environmental pressures caused by European consumption. Examples include shifting from car use to collective transport and bicycles, choosing high-quality and eco-labelled products and energy-efficient housing solutions. Another option is to channel additional income towards consumption areas with low environmental pressures per Euro spent, e.g. communications, education and sustainable leisure activities.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Consumption and the environment - SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message Consumption and environment — key message 5
Instigating such changes and making more resource-efficient and environmentally sustainable consumption patterns mainstream is a significant challenge. It requires public authorities to put the framework conditions in place to enable business and consumers/citizens to act sustainably, and business and citizens need to take action by adopting more sustainable production and consumption patterns.
Located in The European environment – state and outlook 2010 Consumption and the environment - SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100