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File The fourth assessment: Presentation of the report at the Belgrade conference
Subtitled movie of the speech hold by Executive Director of the EEA Jacqueline McGlade during the presentation of the 4th pan-European assessment at the UNECE 6th Мinisterial Conference "Environment for Europe", in Belgrade, 10th of October 2007.
Located in Environmental topics Archive: the Belgrade ministerial conference Videos and interviews
Indicator Assessment Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas (CSI 004) - Assessment published Aug 2010
Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) In the period 1997-2008, 18-50 % of the urban population was potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ) in excess of the EU limit value set for the protection of human health (50 microgram /m 3 daily mean not be exceeded more than 35 days a calendar year); (Figure 1). Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) In the period 1997-2008, 6-41 % of the urban population was potentially exposed to ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations above the EU limit value set for the protection of human health (40 microgram NO 2 /m 3 annual mean). There was a slight downwards trend over the period (Figure 1). Ozone (O 3 ) In the period 1997-2008, 13-62 % of the urban population in Europe was exposed to ambient ozone concentrations exceeding the EU target value set for the protection of human health (120 microgram O 3 /m 3 daily maximum 8-hourly average, not to be exceeded more than 25 times a calendar year by 2010). The 62 % of the urban population exposed to ambient ozone concentrations over the EU target value was recorded in 2003, which was the record year. There was no discernible trend over the period (Figure 1). Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) In the period 1997-2008, the fraction of the urban population in EEA-32 member countries that is potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of sulphur dioxide in excess of the EU limit value set for the protection of human health (125 microgram SO 2 /m 3 daily mean not to be exceeded more than three days a year), decreased to less than 1 %, and as such the EU limit value set is close to being met everywhere in the urban background (Figure 1).
Located in Data and maps Indicators Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas
Indicator Assessment Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone (CSI 005) - Assessment published Aug 2010
Eutrophication The magnitude of the risk of ecosystem eutrophication and its geographical coverage has diminished only slightly over the years. The predictions for 2010 and 2020 indicate that the risk is still widespread over Europe. This is in conflict with the EU's long-term objective of not exceeding critical loads of airborne acidifying and eutrophying substances in sensitive ecosystem areas (National Emission Ceilings Directive, 6th Environmental Action Programme, Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution). Acidification The situation has considerably improved and it is predicted to improve further. The interim environmental objective for 2010 (National Emission Ceilings Directive) will most likely not be met completely. However, the European ecosystem areas where the critical load will be exceeded is predicted to have declined by more than 80 % in 2010 with 1990 as a base year. By 2020, it is expected that the risk of ecosystem acidification will only be an issue at some hot spots, in particular at the border area between the Netherlands and Germany. Ozone (O 3 ) Most vegetation and agricultural crops are exposed to ozone levels exceeding the long term objective given in the EU Air Quality Directive. A significant fraction is also exposed to levels above the 2010 target value defined in the Directive. Concentrations in 2007 were lower than in 2006. The effect-related accumulated concentrations, addressing exposure of crops to ozone over several summer months, shows large year-to-year variations, there is a non-significance tendency to increase.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone
Publication Impact of selected policy measures on Europe's air quality
The main objective of the present study is to analyse and quantify the effects that certain past policy measures in the road transport and industrial combustion facilities have had on the magnitude of air pollutant emissions and subsequent air quality in Europe. The policies selected are the Euro emission standards for road vehicles and the EU directives on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and large combustion plants (LCP).
Located in Publications
Figure Annual mean NO2 concentration observed at urban background stations, 1997-2009 (EU-27)
The figuer shows the annual mean NO2 concentration observed at urban background stations. Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta, are not included due to the geographical coverage of the Urban Audit.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
File Expert interview: transport and environment
Peder Jensen, EEA transport and the environment expert. Transport is harmful to the environment in many different ways. The most visible effect of transport is some of the emissions that we see: we can see the exhaust gas coming out of a car and at certain times it's very dirty and very dark. It's a very visible way where it's harming the environment, harming the air that we are all breathing. But there are also effects that are not quite so visible - when we are burning fuel in our engines we are emitting a lot of different gases and some of them are invisible greenhouse gases that help trap the heat in the atmosphere to get the earth to go warmer. One of the other important effects of transport is the noise impact. Noise means that people have a hard time sleeping, that they therefore don't get the rest that they need. It also affects the animals, disturbs their life, if roads or railroads run through nature areas it therefore means a reduced quality of life for both animals and people. Finally, transport infrastructure has a tendency to fragment natural habitats for animals. Lots of animals are disturbed by roads, they cannot cross the road, they are either scared off by the noise or they can't find ways to cross these different infrastructures and this means that the habitats they are living in don't work so well for their reproduction.
Located in Environmental topics Transport Multimedia
File Troff document Curbing CO2 emissions from road transport
Road transport generates about one fifth of the EU's CO2 emissions, with passenger cars responsible for around 12%. This makes it the second most important source of greenhouse gases. Although there have been significant improvements over recent years in vehicle technology, these have not been enough to neutralise the effect of increases in traffic and car size.
Located in Environmental topics Transport Multimedia
File Better and cleaner urban transport for Europe
Urban traffic is responsible for 40% of CO2 road transport emissions. In Europe, 9 citizens out of 10 are exposed to harmful particle emissions that are higher than the tolerated norm. Time wasted in traffic jams will soon cost 1% of the European Union’s GDP. In terms of urban transport, the European Union contributes to financing infrastructures and equipment, but also supports projects aiming at replacing petrol by alternative and clean fuels. Most cities in the EU are putting in place a mix of advanced technologies and transport policy measures, such as alternative traffic management systems to combine mobility and quality of life. The EU cooperates with cities, notably through the CIVITAS network, to favour the exchange of know-how and best practices at European level.
Located in Environmental topics Transport Multimedia
File Clean air for Europe
Air pollution is a growing concern in the area of public health. Scientific research shows that air pollutants are behind a higher number of diseases such as respiratory allergies, asthma and inflammatory conditions. It is the most vulnerable segments of populations, the elderly and children, who are the first to be affected by this phenomenon. In May 2001, the European Commission launched its " Clean Air for Europe " (CAFE) programme. This is a three-year programme intended to investigate all sources of air pollution and provide solutions to reduce them.
Located in Environmental topics Air pollution Multimedia
File Air Pollution: harmful particles
The European Commission wants to further reduce air pollution in Europe. Although the situation has improved substantially over the last few decades, there are still significant areas of concern with regard to certain pollutants that are particularly harmful to human health (respiratory diseases) and damaging to the environment (acidification, eutrophication, etc.). The anti-pollution programme that the Commission has launched to that effect is called the “Clean Air for Europe” or CAFE programme.
Located in Environmental topics Air pollution Multimedia
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