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Indicator Assessment Global and European temperature (CSI 012/CLIM 001/CLIM 003) - Assessment published Jun 2010
Global The global (land and ocean) average temperature increase between 1850 and 2009 was 0.74 0 C using combined Hadley centre and CRU datasets compared to the 1850 - 1899 period average temperature and 0.84 0 C using GISS dataset compared to the 1880 - 1899 period average temperature.  All used temperature records show the 2000s decade (2000 - 2009) was the warmest decade. The rate of global average temperature change has increased from around 0.06 0 C per decade over last 100 years, to 0.16 - 0.20 0 C in last decade. The best estimates for projected global warming in this century are a further rise in the global average temperature from 1.8 to 4.0 0 C for different scenarios that assume no further/additional action to limit emissions. The EU global temperature target is projected to be exceeded between 2040 and 2060, taking into account all six IPCC scenarios. Europe Europe has warmed more than the global average. The annual average temperature for the European land area up to 2009 was 1.3 0 C above 1850 - 1899 average temperature, and for the combined land and ocean area 1 0 C above. Considering the land area, nine out of the last 12 years were among the warmest years since 1850. High-temperature extremes like hot days, tropical nights, and heat waves have become more frequent, while low - temperature extremes (e.g. cold spells, frost days) have become less frequent in Europe. The average length of summer heat waves over Western Europe doubled over the period 1850 to 2009 and the frequency of hot days almost tripled. The annual average temperature in Europe is projected to rise in this century with the largest warming over eastern and northern Europe in winter, and over Southern Europe in summer. High temperature events across Europe including temperature extremes such as heat waves are projected to become more frequent, intense and longer this century, whereas winter temperature variability and the number of cold and frost extremes are projected to decrease further. According to the projections, the most affected European regions are going to be the Iberian and the Apennine Peninsula and south - eastern Europe.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Global and European temperature
Indicator Assessment Greenhouse gas emission trends (CSI 010/CLIM 050) - Assessment published Mar 2009
According to first estimates by EEA for the year 2010, EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions increased by 2.4 % compared to 2009 (with a margin of error of +/- 0.3 %). This was due to the return to economic growth in many countries and a colder winter leading to an increased heating demand. However, the increase in emissions was contained by a move from coal to natural gas and the sustained strong growth in renewable energy generation. EU‑27 emissions were 15.5 % below the 1990 level. This 2010 increase follows a 7 % drop in 2009 (compared to 2008), largely due to the economic recession and the growth of renewable energy generation. Between 1990 and 2010, greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-27 decreased in all main emitting sectors except in the transport sector, where they increased considerably. In the EU-15, CO 2  emissions from public electricity and heat production also increased. In the EU-15, estimated 2010 GHG emissions increased by 2.3 % (+/– 0.7) compared to 2009. This implies that EU‑15 greenhouse gas emissions were approximately 10.6 % below the 1990 level in 2010 (1) or 10.7 % below the base-year level. The European Union remains well on track to achieve its Kyoto Protocol target (an 8% reduction of its greenhouse gas emissions compared to base-year level, to be achieved during the period from 2008 to 2012). 2010 emissions of all EU-12 Member States that have a Kyoto target were well below their Kyoto target, except in Slovenia. A detailed assessment of progress towards Kyoto targets and 2020 targets in Europe is provided in EEA's 2011 report on Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections .
Located in Data and maps Indicators Greenhouse gas emission trends
Indicator Assessment Land take (CSI 014) - Assessment published Nov 2005
Land take by the expansion of artificial areas and related infrastructure is the main cause of the increase in the coverage of land at the European level. Agricultural zones and, to a lesser extent, forests and semi-natural and natural areas, are disappearing in favour of the development of artificial surfaces. This affects biodiversity since it decreases habitats, the living space of a number of species, and fragments the landscapes that support and connect them.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Land take
Indicator Assessment Municipal waste generation (CSI 016/WST 001) - Assessment published Nov 2009
The generation of municipal waste per capita in western European countries has stabilised since 2000, albeit at a high level. Meanwhile the EU-12 has seen a steady decrease in per capita generation over the same period albeit with a slight increase between 2005 and 2006.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Municipal waste generation
Indicator Assessment Nutrients in freshwater (CSI 020) - Assessment published Jan 2009
Nitrate concentrations in Europe's groundwaters increased in the first half of 1990s and have then  remained relatively constant. The average nitrate concentration in European rivers has decreased approximately 10 % since 1998 from 2.8 to 2.5 mg N/l, reflecting the effect of measures to reduce agricultural inputs of nitrate. Nitrate levels in lakes are in general much lower than in rivers, but also in lakes there has been a 15 % reduction in the average nitrate concentration. Phosphorus concentrations in European rivers and lakes generally decreased during the last 14 years, reflecting the general improvement in wastewater treatment and reduced phosphate content of detergents over this period.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Nutrients in freshwater
Indicator Assessment Oxygen consuming substances in rivers (CSI 019) - Assessment published Jan 2009
Concentrations of BOD and total ammonium have decreased in European rivers in the period 1992 to 2006, corresponding to the general improvement in wastewater treatment (Fig. 1).   EEA water quality indicators have up to now presented European and regional overviews and country comparison. However, water quality data at national level may not be relevant or sufficient for some countries, and EEA will in the coming years change its indicators to reflect concentration levels and trends at River Basin District (RBD) level to duly reflect local and regional differences in water quality. See also WISE interactive maps: Mean annual BOD in rivers and Mean annual Total Ammonium in rivers
Located in Data and maps Indicators Oxygen consuming substances in rivers
Indicator Assessment Passenger transport demand (CSI 035/TERM 012) - Assessment published Sep 2010
Passenger transport demand in the EEA-32 continues to grow, but at a slower pace than GDP indicating a decoupling between these two metrics. The latest data shows that since 2002 air passenger transport has been growing at a much faster rate than any other mode of passenger transport.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Passenger transport demand
Indicator Assessment Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances (CSI 006) - Assessment published Jan 2009
Implementation of the Montreal Protocol has led to a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere. The total production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in EEA member countries has decreased strongly since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, and it is practically zero nowadays. However, the ozone hole expanded in 2008 to 27 million square kilometres, equivalent to about 6 times the territory of the EU.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances
Indicator Assessment Progress in management of contaminated sites (CSI 015/LSI 003) - Assessment published Aug 2007
Soil contamination requiring clean up is present at approximately 250000 sites in the EEA member countries, according to recent estimates. And this number is expected to grow. Potentially polluting activities are estimated to have occurred at nearly 3 million sites (including the 250000 sites already mentioned) and investigation is needed to establish whether remediation is required. If current investigation trends continue, the number of sites needing remediation will increase by 50% by 2025. By contrast, more than 80000 sites have been cleaned up in the last 30 years in the countries where data on remediation is available. Although the range of polluting activities (and their relative importance as localised sources of soil contamination) may vary considerably across Europe, industrial and commercial activities as well as the treatment and disposal of waste are reported to be the most important sources. National reports indicate that heavy metals and mineral oil are the most frequent soil contaminants at investigated sites, while mineral oil and chlorinated hydrocarbons are the most frequent contaminants found in groundwater. A considerable share of remediation expenditure, about 35% on average, comes from public budgets. Although considerable efforts have been made already, it will take decades to clean up a legacy of contamination.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Progress in management of contaminated sites
Indicator Assessment Renewable gross final energy consumption (ENER 028) - Assessment published Jan 2011
In 2007, the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption (with normalised hydro) in the EU-27 was 10.0 % (up from 6.7 % in 1993), representing half of the 20 % target set in the new EU directive on renewable energy for 2020. Renewable energies represented in 2007, 11.6% of total final heat consumption (up from 7.6% in 1993), 16.3% of electricity consumption (up from 12.8% in 1993) and 2.6% of transport fuels consumption. In the EEA countries, the share of renewable energy in total gross final energy consumption was 11.3% in 2007.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Renewable gross final energy consumption
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