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Figure Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2008 and 2007-2008, EU-27
Since 1990, in the EU-27 the electricity consumption increased in the service sector (including agriculture) at an annual growth rate of 2.6 %. In total, the electricity consumption increased by 59.2 % between 1990 and 2008. The main reasons for increased electricity consumption in the service sector were the sustained growth of this sector throughout the EU, the increased use of electrical appliances (such as air conditioning, lighting or IT equipment) and the penetration of new electrical devices
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Figure Average annual percentage change in final electricity consumption, EU-27 1990-2008
Most countries in the EU-27 experienced an overall increase in electricity consumption over the period from 1990 to 2008, except for Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and Bulgaria. During this period, the average annual growth rate of electricity consumption varied greatly by country, ranging from less than 1 % per year in Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Hungary, Slovakia and Estonia to over 4 % in Malta, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Iceland, Cyprus and Turkey. The decrease or low growth in electricity consumption in the new Member States was a combined result of economic restructuring in the 1990s and a decrease or low growth of the total population in those countries
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Figure Final electricity consumption by sector, EU-27
Final electricity consumption by sector, EU-27. Influenced by the liberalisation of the power market, electricity prices decreased during the 1990s but they have started to rise again in the last few years
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Figure Electricity consumption per capita (in kWh/cap) in 2008
The average electricity use per capita in the EU-27 is over 2.3 times the global average and 2.8 times that of China. Only Luxembourg, Sweden, Finland, Norway and Iceland are using more electricity per capita than in the United States. The rest of the EU-27 is well below the US
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Figure Energy consumption by end uses per dwelling
Based on the ratio: energy consumption by end uses divided by the number of permanently occupied dwelling.
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Figure Drivers of the change in average annual energy consumption per household in the EU-27 between 1990 and 2008
The energy consumption of households is decomposed in different explanatory effects: change in average dwelling size, increasing number of appliances (more electrical appliances) and central heating diffusion, energy efficiency improvement (as measured from ODEX) and change in behaviour related to more confort.
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Figure Households energy consumption by end uses
Share of energy consumption by end uses in total households consumption.
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Figure % change in household final energy consumption per person, 1990-2008
Based on the ratio : energy consumption / population (%/year calculated on the period 1990-2008)
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Figure Influence of income and energy prices on household consumption per dwelling
The graph characterizes the average consumption per households (at normal climate) in relation to the evolution of prices and incomes. The income per households for EU-27 as a whole is the sum of the 27 EU countries based on national Odyssee data.
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Article D source code Living in an interconnected world
'…the sheer weight of the combined aspirations and lifestyles of 500 million Europeans is just too great. Never mind the legitimate desires of many other billions on our planet to share those lifestyles.... We will need to change the behaviour of European consumers. To work on people's awareness and to influence their habits.' Janez Potočnik, European Union Commissioner for Environment (March 2010).
Located in Signals — Living in a changing climate Signals 2011 Articles
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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