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Sound and independent information
on the environment

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Figure Observed changes in frost days indices 1976-2009 (in days per decade)
Frost day is defined as a day with an average temperature below 0 ºC. Frost days are defined as a day with an average temperature below 0 ºC.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Global and European temperature (CSI 012/CLIM 001) - Assessment published Jun 2010
Global The global (land and ocean) average temperature increase between 1850 and 2009 was 0.74 0 C using combined Hadley centre and CRU datasets compared to the 1850 - 1899 period average temperature and 0.84 0 C using GISS dataset compared to the 1880 - 1899 period average temperature.  All used temperature records show the 2000s decade (2000 - 2009) was the warmest decade. The rate of global average temperature change has increased from around 0.06 0 C per decade over last 100 years, to 0.16 - 0.20 0 C in last decade. The best estimates for projected global warming in this century are a further rise in the global average temperature from 1.8 to 4.0 0 C for different scenarios that assume no further/additional action to limit emissions. The EU global temperature target is projected to be exceeded between 2040 and 2060, taking into account all six IPCC scenarios. Europe Europe has warmed more than the global average. The annual average temperature for the European land area up to 2009 was 1.3 0 C above 1850 - 1899 average temperature, and for the combined land and ocean area 1 0 C above. Considering the land area, nine out of the last 12 years were among the warmest years since 1850. High-temperature extremes like hot days, tropical nights, and heat waves have become more frequent, while low - temperature extremes (e.g. cold spells, frost days) have become less frequent in Europe. The average length of summer heat waves over Western Europe doubled over the period 1850 to 2009 and the frequency of hot days almost tripled. The annual average temperature in Europe is projected to rise in this century with the largest warming over eastern and northern Europe in winter, and over Southern Europe in summer. High temperature events across Europe including temperature extremes such as heat waves are projected to become more frequent, intense and longer this century, whereas winter temperature variability and the number of cold and frost extremes are projected to decrease further. According to the projections, the most affected European regions are going to be the Iberian and the Apennine Peninsula and south - eastern Europe.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Global and European temperature
Figure chemical/x-pdb The 2007 minimum sea-ice extent
Note: The extent of the summer sea ice in September 2007 reached a historical minimum, 39 % below the climatic average for the first two decades of satellite observations (red line)
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Arctic ice cover in September 2007
The extent of the summer sea ice in September 2007 reached a historical minimum, 39 % below the climatic average for the first two decades of satellite observations (red line)
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Troff document Costs (% of GDP) for various world regions to achieve climate change targets 2020-2100 under the LCEP scenario (left), and the global permit price and global costs (right)
South Asia includes a.o.: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Climate sensitivity
Climate Sensitivity Index for the Mediterranean Basin
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Percentage of Europe experiencing moderate drought conditions during the 20th century
Expressed as standardized precipitation indices (SPI) for time scales of 12 months
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Average annual changes in fire danger level 1958-2006
Based on use of Seasonal Severity Rating (SSR)
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rate of change of global average temperature, 1850-2008 (in oC per decade)
Type: Graph
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rate of change of global average temperature, 1850-2007 (in oC per decade)
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100