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Figure Annual variation in the ozone AOT40 value for crops (May-July) in (μg/m³).h, 1996–2010
Average values over all rural stations which reported data over at least eleven years in the period 1996-2010. The black line corresponds to the 5-year averaged value. Variations over Europe in observed values is large, eighty percent of the observations falls with the red shaded area.
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Figure Agricultural area (in 1 000 km²) in EEA member countries for each exposure class
A data summary of agricultural area (in 1000 km²) for EEA countries for each exposure class is given in the table below. The total agricultural area in the EEA-32 member countries excluding Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey amounts to be 2.024 million km2; since 2007 Iceland and Norway are included in the analysis increasing the total agricultural area to 2042 million km2. Since 2008 data for Switzerland is available
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Figure Rural concentration map of the ozone indicator AOT40 for crops, year 2010
AOT40 for crops are vegatation exposure related indicators and are based on rural background station observation only.
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Figure Exposure of agricultural area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (μg/m³).h) in EEA member countries
Exposure of agricultural area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (μg/m3).hour) in EEA member countries . In the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) the target value for protection of vegetation is set to 18000 (μg/m3).h while the long-term objective is set to 6000 (μg/m3).hour. Until 2006 Iceland, Norway Switzerland and Turkey have not been included in the analyses due to lack of detailed land cover data and/or rural ozone data, in 2007 Switzerland and Turkey are not included; since 2008 only Turkey is not included
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Figure Rural concentration map of the ozone indicator AOT40 for forest in 2010
The gradient of the AOT40f values is similar to those of the AOT40c for crops: relative low in northern Europe, and the highest values observed in the countries around the Mediterranean. The critical level is met in north Scandinavia, Ireland, part of the UK and in the coastal regions of the Netherlands (total forested area with concentrations below the critical level is 22 % of a total area of 1.44 million km2). In south Europe levels may be as high as 4-5 times above the critical level.
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Figure Exposure of forest area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (mg/m³).h) in EEA member countries
Please consider that since 2004 a growing number of member countries has been included. In 2004 Bulgaria, Greece, Iceland, Norway, Romania, Switzerland, and Turkey have not been includedwere added. In For 2005/2006 Iceland, Norway Switzerland and Turkey are were still excluded in the analyses due to lack of detailed land cover data and/or rural ozone data. In 2007 Switzerland and Turkey are were not included. Since 2008 only Turkey is has not beennot included. Calculations of forest exposure are not available for year prior to 2004.
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Data Visualization Concentration status for the target value threshold for protection of forests, 2011
Distribution of rural stations by thresholds of AOT40 concentrations for the year 2011. AOT40 concentrations for the protection of forest is the accumulated dose of hourly concentrations of O3 over a threshold of 40 ppb, equivalent to 80 μg/m3, accumulated over five month (April to September).
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Data Visualization Concentration status for the target value threshold for protection of crops, 2011
Distribution of rural stations by thresholds of AOT40 concentrations measured in stations for the year 2011. AOT40 concentrations for the protection of vegetation is the accumulated dose of hourly concentrations of O3 over a threshold of 40 ppb, equivalent to 80 μg/m3, accumulated over three month (May to July).
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Data Visualization Concentration status for the target value threshold for protection of human health, 2011
Distribution of stations by thresholds of the 93.15 percentile of the daily maximum of the running 8-h mean O3 concentrations for the year 2011. The chart is based on the 93.15 percentile of the daily maximum of the running 8-h mean O3 concentrations, corresponding to the 26th highest O3 concentration when data availability is 100% over the year.
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Figure Annual changes in concentrations of PM10, O3 and NO2 in the period 2001–2010
The data presented were derived from a consistent set of stations in all years. Statistically significant trends (level of significance 0.1) are calculated by applying the Mann-Kendall test. Increasing concentrations are indicated with red dots and decreasing concentrations with green dots, when statistically significant. The applied method is described in de Leeuw, 2012.
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European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Denmark
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