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Indicator Assessment Global and European temperature (CSI 012/CLIM 001) - Assessment published Jun 2012
Global Three independent long records of global average near-surface (land and ocean) annual temperature show that the decade between 2002 and 2011 was 0.77°C to 0.80°C warmer than the pre-industrial average. In recent decades, the rate of change in global average temperature has been close to the 0.2°C per decade. The Arctic has warmed significantly more than the globe, and this is projected to continue into the future. The best estimate for the further rise in global average temperature is between 1.8 and 4.0°C for the lowest and highest SRES marker scenarios (IPCC SRES) that assume no additional political measures to limit emissions. When climate model uncertainties are taken into account, the likely range increases to 1.1 – 6.4 °C. The EU target of limiting global average temperature increase to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels is projected to be exceeded during the second half of this century and likely around 2050, for all six IPCC scenarios. Europe The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the pre-industrial level, which makes it the warmest on record. Annual average land temperature over Europe is projected to continue increasing by more than global land temperature during the 21 st century. By the 2021-2050 period, temperature increases of between 1.0°C and 2.5°C are projected, and by 2071-2100 this increases to between 2.5°C and 4.0°C. The largest temperature increase during 21 st century is projected over eastern and northern Europe in winter and over Southern Europe in summer. Extremes of cold have become less frequent in Europe while warm extremes have become more frequent. Since 1880 the average length of summer heat waves over Western Europe doubled and frequency of hot days almost tripled.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Global and European temperature
Figure European average air temperature anomalies (1850 to 2011) in °C over land areas only, for annual (upper), winter (middle) and summer (lower) periods
European average air temperature anomalies (1850 to 2011) in °C over land areas only, for annual (upper), winter (middle) and summer (lower) periods relative to pre-industrial baseline period. 1) Black line - HadCRUT3 from the UK Met Office Hadley Centre and University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit, baseline period 1850-1899 (Brohan et al., 2006) with the grey area representing the 95% confidence range, 2) Red line – MLOST from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Centre, baseline period 1880-1899 (Smith et al., 2008), and 3) Blue line - GISSTemp from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Studies, baseline period 1880-1899 (Hansen et al., 2010).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure European average air temperature anomalies (1850 to 2011) in °C over land areas only
The sources of the original data: 1) Black line - HadCRUT3 from the UK Met Office Hadley Centre and University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit, baseline period 1850-1899 (Brohan et al., 2006) with the grey area representing the 95% confidence range, 2) Red line – MLOST from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Centre, baseline period 1880-1899 (Smith et al., 2008), and 3) Blue line - GISSTemp from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Studies, baseline period 1880-1899 (Hansen et al., 2010). Upper graph shows anomalies and lower graph shows decadal average anomalies for the same datasets. Europe is defined as the area between 35° to 70° North and -25° to 30° East, plus Turkey (35° to 40° North and 30° to 45° East).
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Main climates of Europe
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Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure D source code Areas of possible establishment of Aedes albopictus (the tiger mosquito) in Europe for 2010 and 2030
Developed by Francis Schaffner (BioSys Consultancy, Zurich), in partnership with Guy Hendrickx/Ernst-Jan Scholte (AviaGIS, Zoersel, Belgium) and Jolyon M Medlock (Health Protection Agency, United Kingdom) for the ECDC TigerMaps project
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Common birds in Europe — population index (1980 = 100)
How to read the graph: since 1980 the number of common farmland birds has declined by around 50 %
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rate of change of global average temperature, 1850-2010 (in ºC per decade)
Lines refer to the decadal rate of change of the global temperature anomalies. Sources of the data are NASA’s GISS mean land-ocean temperature anomalies and the Hadley Center’s HadCRUT3 dataset
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Observed changes in frost days indices 1976-2010 (in days per decade)
How to read the map: Frost day is defined as a day with an average temperature below 0 ºC. Stations with positive trends are in blue and stations with negative trend are in red colour. When stations are in green colour trends are not statistically significant at 25% level.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Annual, winter (December, January, February) and summer (June, July, August) mean temperature deviations in Europe, 1860-2010 (°C)
The lines refer to 10-year moving average European land.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Observed global annual average temperature deviations in the period 1850–2010 (in ºC)
In blue, the source of the original anomalies is the combined UK Met Office Hadley Centre and Climate Research Unit dataset, HadCRUT3. The global mean annual temperature deviations are in relation to the base period 1961-1990. In red, the source of the original anomalies is NASA's GISS dataset. The anomalies are in the source in relation to the base period 1951-1980. The global mean annual temperature deviations have been adjusted to be relative to the period 1850-1899 (HadCRUT3) and 1880 - 1899 (NASA's GISS). All original data is rounded to the nearest 2 decimal places. The trend lines show the 10-year centred moving average of the original anomalies for both datasets relative to the period 1880-1899. The dotted lines show the annual anomalies of the HadCRUT3 (blue) data set and GISS (red) respectively.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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