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Sound and independent information
on the environment

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Figure Greenhouse gas emissions intensity per GDP for EU-15 and EU-27 and their Member States
The chart on the left shows the change in the economic intensity of greenhouse gases (i.e
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Greenhouse-gas emissions intensity of energy consumption by country in 1990 and 2003
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Total primary energy intensity (CSI 028/ENER 017) - Assessment published Aug 2011
Between 1990 and 2007, economic growth in Europe required increasing but less and less energy inputs. Total energy consumption increased until 2004 and stabilized all the way through 2006. In 2008 there was an absolute decoupling of economic growth and energy consumption, with the latter decreasing by 0.5% compared to 2007 while GDP continued to grow.  Over the period 1990-2008, GDP grew at an annual average rate of 2.1% and total energy consumption at an annual average rate of 0.4%. As a result, total energy intensity in the EU fell at an annual average rate of 1.6%
Located in Data and maps Indicators Total primary energy intensity
Indicator Assessment Total primary energy intensity (CSI 028/ENER 017) - Assessment published Apr 2012
Total energy intensity decreased by 1.6% from 1990 to 2009 in the EU-27.   Since 2005 the intensity decrease more rapidly, by 2.2%/year on average. In 2009, the global economic crisis led to a significant drop in total energy consumption (-5.5%) in the EU-27 with the GDP decreasing by 4.3%: this resulted in a 1.3% decrease in the total primary intensity In non EU EEA countries the primary energy intensity has been on average quite stable over the period 1990-2009;  it however increased in the recent years, by 1.4%/year over 2005-2009 (+1.4%/year).
Located in Data and maps Indicators Total primary energy intensity
Figure Total energy intensity in the EU-25 between 1990-2003, 1990 = 100
Some estimates have been necessary in order to compute the EU-25 GDP index in 1990
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Trends in final energy intensity, EU-25
The indicator serves to highlight the evolution in energy intensity within each sector
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Index of final energy intensity and energy intensity by sector, EU-27
Index of final energy intensity and energy intensity by sector, EU-27. Final energy intensity or final energy consumption intensity refers to the ratio between the final energy consumption and the GDP
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Final energy consumption intensity (ENER 021) - Assessment published Aug 2011
Economic growth continues to entail less final energy consumption within the EU-27 economy. Over the period 1990-2008, the EU final energy intensity has decreased by around 1.6%/year, and mainly during the years 1996-2000 (-3.1%/year). Since 1995, decoupling of growth from final energy consumption was most successful in the agriculture and services sector where the energy intensity has decreased by respectively 25.7% and 24.9%. In the tertiary and transport sectors the final energy consumption intensities have decreased by 15 % and 8% compared to 1995. In the households sector, the final energy consumption per capita increased by 1.9 % since 1995 due to larger and more numerous dwellings, and greater ownership of electrical appliances.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Final energy consumption intensity
Figure Total energy intensity (index 1995=100), relative energy intensity (as PPS) and per capita consumption
Total energy intensity (index 1995=100), relative energy intensity (as PPS) and per capita consumption
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100