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Figure Rural concentration map of the ozone indicator AOT40 for forest in 2010
The gradient of the AOT40f values is similar to those of the AOT40c for crops: relative low in northern Europe, and the highest values observed in the countries around the Mediterranean. The critical level is met in north Scandinavia, Ireland, part of the UK and in the coastal regions of the Netherlands (total forested area with concentrations below the critical level is 22 % of a total area of 1.44 million km2). In south Europe levels may be as high as 4-5 times above the critical level.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rural concentration map of the ozone indicator AOT40 for crops, year 2007
AOT40 for crops are vegatation exposure related indicators and are based on rural background station observation only.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rural concentration map of the ozone indicator AOT40 for crops, 2006 and 2007
AOT40 for crops are vegatation exposure related indicators and are based on rural background station observation only
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Exposure of agricultural area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (μg/m³).h) in EEA member countries
Exposure of agricultural area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (μg/m3).hour) in EEA member countries . In the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) the target value for protection of vegetation is set to 18000 (μg/m3).h while the long-term objective is set to 6000 (μg/m3).hour. Until 2006 Iceland, Norway Switzerland and Turkey have not been included in the analyses due to lack of detailed land cover data and/or rural ozone data, in 2007 Switzerland and Turkey are not included; since 2008 only Turkey is not included
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone (CSI 005) - Assessment published Nov 2012
Eutrophication The magnitude of the risk of ecosystem eutrophication and its geographical coverage has diminished only slightly over the years. The predictions for 2010 and 2020 indicate that the risk is still widespread over Europe. This is in conflict with the EU's long-term objective of not exceeding critical loads of airborne acidifying and eutrophying substances in sensitive ecosystem areas (National Emission Ceilings Directive, 6th Environmental Action Programme, Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution). Acidification The situation has considerably improved and it is predicted to improve further. The interim environmental objective for 2010 (National Emission Ceilings Directive) will most likely not be met completely. However, the European ecosystem areas where the critical load will be exceeded is predicted to have declined by more than 80 % in 2010 with 1990 as a base year. By 2020, it is expected that the risk of ecosystem acidification will only be an issue at some hot spots, in particular at the border area between the Netherlands and Germany. Ozone (O 3 ) Most vegetation and agricultural crops are exposed to ozone levels exceeding the long term objective given in the EU Air Quality Directive. A significant fraction is also exposed to levels above the 2010 target value defined in the Directive. Concentrations in 2009 were on the average lower than in 2008. The effect-related accumulated concentrations, addressing exposure of crops to ozone over several summer months, shows large year-to-year variations. Over the period 1996-2009 there is a tendency to increased exposure, although this development has not proven to be statistically significant.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone
Figure Exposure of agricultural area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (μg/m³).h) in EEA member countries
In the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) the target value for protection of vegetation is set to 18 000 (μg/m³).h while the long-term objective is set to 6 000 (μg/m³).h. Due to lack of detailed land cover data and/or rural ozone data Iceland and Norway are not included until 2006 and onwards. Switzerland and Turkey have not been included in the analysis for the entire period 1996-2007 due to the same reasons.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Annual variation in the ozone AOT40 value (May-July) in (μg/m³).h, 1996-2007
Average values over all rural stations which reported data over at least nine years in the period 1996-2007. The light blue line corresponds to the 5-year averaged value.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rural concentration map of the ozone indicator AOT40 for crops, year 2008
AOT40 for crops are vegatation exposure related indicators and are based on rural background station observation only.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Rural concentration map of the ozone indicator AOT40 for forest in 2009
The gradient of the AOT40f values is similar to those of the AOT40c for crops: relative low in northern Europe, and the highest values observed in the countries around the Mediterranean. The critical level is met in north Scandinavia, Ireland, part of the UK and in the coastal regions of the Netherlands (total forested area with concentrations below the critical level is 22 % of a total area of 1.44 million km2). In south Europe levels may be as high as 4-5 times above the critical level.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Exposure of agricultural area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (μg/m³).h) in EEA member countries
In the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) the target value for protection of vegetation is set to 18 000 (μg/m³).h while the long-term objective is set to 6 000 (μg/m³).h. Due to lack of detailed land cover data and/or rural ozone data Iceland and Norway are not included until 2006 and onwards. Switzerland have not been included in the analysis for the entire period 1996-2007 due to the same reasons. Turkey is not included in the analysis 1996-2008.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
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Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100