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Figure Oslo — quiet sanctuaries in a busy urban environment, 2010
Quiet areas decided by the the city of Oslo and the connection between areas
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment chemical/x-molconn-Z Aquaculture production (CSI 033) - Assessment published Sep 2011
European aquaculture production has continued to rapidly increase during the past 15 years due to the expansion of marine production. EU 15 and EFTA countries dominate EU’s aquaculture production, where Norway accounted for nearly 40% of the total European production in 2008, followed by Spain, France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Turkey is the most important producer in the EU7 + EU2 + others, having increased its output by nearly 200% from 2001 to 2008. The major increase in aquaculture production has been in marine salmon culture in northwest Europe and, to a lesser extent, trout culture throughout western Europe and Turkey.  Aquaculture production intensity, as measured per kilometre of coastline length, is two times higher in EU 15 + EFTA countries compared with EU7 + EU2 + other countries. This intensity is likely to continue to rise as marine aquaculture production increases, particularly since the culture of new species, such as cod, halibut and turbot, is becoming more viable. This increase represents a rise in pressure on adjacent water bodies and associated ecosystems, resulting mainly from nutrient release from aquaculture facilities. The precise level of local impact will mainly vary according to species, production techniques and local natural characteristics.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Aquaculture production
Indicator Assessment Status of marine fish stocks (CSI 032) - Assessment published Sep 2011
Most of the EU commercial catch is currently taken from stocks that are assessed. There is, however, a clear trend from north to south: almost all catches in the north come from assessed stocks, whereas in the south this only happens for around half of the catch.  Of the assessed commercial stocks in the NE Atlantic, about one third is outside safe biological limits. In the Mediterranean, about half of the assessed stocks are fished outside safe biological limits. In the Black Sea no stocks are assessed.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Status of marine fish stocks
Indicator Assessment Use of freshwater resources (CSI 018/WAT 001) - Assessment published Dec 2010
Over the last 10-17 years the Water Exploitation Index (WEI) decreased in 24 EEA countries (Fig.1), as a result of water saving and water efficiency measures. Total water abstraction decreased about 12 %, but one fifth  of Europe's population still lives in water-stressed countries (approx. 113 million inhabitants).
Located in Data and maps Indicators Use of freshwater resources
Indicator Assessment chemical/x-pdb Passenger transport demand (CSI 035/TERM 012) - Assessment published Jan 2011
Between 2007 and 2008 passenger transport demand in the EEA-32 declined, for the first time in the 13 years displayed, most likely due to the impacts of the global economic recession. However, this does little to change the long-term trend; overall passenger transport demand has grown by over a fifth since 1995. There is continued evidence to suggest a decoupling between passenger transport demand and GDP in the EEA-32. However, latest estimates for air passenger transport within the EU-27 indicate that demand has been growing at a much faster rate than any other mode of passenger transport.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Passenger transport demand
Indicator Assessment Global and European temperature (CSI 012/CLIM 001) - Assessment published May 2011
Global The global (land and ocean) average temperature increase between 1850 and 2010 was 0.81 0 C using combined UK Met Office Hadley centre and University of East Anglia - Climate Research Unit HadCRUT3 dataset compared to the 1850 - 1899 period average temperature and 0.89 0 C using Goddard Institute for Space Studies - GISS dataset compared to the 1880 - 1899 period average temperature.  All used temperature records show the 2000s decade (2001 - 2010) was the warmest decade. For the HadCRUT3 and GISS datasets the rate of the global average has increased from around 0.06 0 C per decade over last 100 years, to 0.18 - 0.22 0 C in last decade. The best estimates for projected global warming in this century are a further rise in the global average temperature from 1.8 to 4.0 0 C for different scenarios that assume no further/additional action to limit emissions. The EU global temperature target is projected to be exceeded between 2040 and 2060, taking into account all six IPCC scenarios. Europe Europe has warmed more than the global average. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2001 - 2010) was 1.2 °C above the 1850 - 1899 average, and for the combined land and ocean area 1.0 °C above. Considering the land area, 8 out of the last 13 years were among the warmest years since 1850. High-temperature extremes like hot days, tropical nights, and heat waves have become more frequent, while low - temperature extremes (e.g. cold spells, frost days) have become less frequent in Europe. The average length of summer heat waves over Western Europe doubled over the period 1850 to 2010 and the frequency of hot days almost tripled. The annual average temperature in Europe is projected to rise in this century with the largest warming over eastern and northern Europe in winter, and over Southern Europe in summer. High temperature events across Europe including temperature extremes such as heat waves are projected to become more frequent, intense and longer this century, whereas winter temperature variability and the number of cold and frost extremes are projected to decrease further. According to the projections, the most affected European regions are going to be the Iberian and the Apennine Peninsula and south - eastern Europe.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Global and European temperature
Indicator Assessment chemical/x-pdb Emissions of acidifying substances (CSI 001/APE 007) - Assessment published Oct 2010
Emissions of acidifying pollutants (nitrogen oxides (NO X ), sulphur oxides (SO 2 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ) have decreased significantly in most of the individual EEA member countries between 1990 and 2008. Emissions of SO 2 have decreased by 74 %, NO X by 34 % and NH 3 emissions by 24 % since 1990. The EU-27 is on track to meet its overall target to reduce emissions of SO 2 and NH 3 as specified by the EU's NEC Directive (NECD). However a large number of individual Member States, and the EU as a whole, anticipate missing the 2010 emission ceilings set for NO X in the NECD, Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), both Liechtenstein and Norway also reported NO X emissions in 2008 that were substantially higher than their respective 2010 ceilings.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Emissions of acidifying substances
Indicator Assessment chemical/x-pdb Emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter (CSI 003/APE 009) - Assessment published Oct 2010
Total emissions of primary PM10 particulate matter have reduced by 21% across the EEA-32 region between 1990 and 2008, driven by a 29% reduction in emissions of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) fraction; emissions of particulates between 2.5 and 10 µm have risen slightly over the same period. Of this reduction in PM10 emissions, 48% has taken place in the 'Energy Production and Distribution' sector due to the fuel-switching from coal to natural gas for electricity generation and improvements in the performance of pollution abatement equipment installed at industrial facilities.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter
Indicator Assessment chemical/x-pdb Emissions of ozone precursors (CSI 002/APE 008) - Assessment published Oct 2010
Emissions of all ground-level ozone precursor pollutants have decreased across the EEA-32 region between 1990 and 2008; nitrogen oxides (NO X ) by 34%, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) by 45%, carbon monoxide (CO) by 56% and methane (CH 4 ) by 26%. This decrease has been achieved mainly as a result of the introduction of catalytic converters for vehicles. These changes have significantly reduced emissions of NO X and CO from the road transport sector, the main source of ozone precursor emissions. The EU-27 is still some way from meeting its 2010 target to reduce emissions of NO X , one of the two ozone precursors (NO X and NMVOC) for which emission limits exist under the EU's NEC Directive (NECD). Whilst total NMVOC emissions in the EU-27 were below the NECD limit in 2008, a number of individual Member States anticipate missing their ceilings for one or either of these two pollutants. Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings set under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), all three countries reported NMVOC emissions in 2008 that were lower than their respective 2010 ceilings. However both Liechtenstein and Norway reported NO x emissions in 2008 that were substantially higher than their respective 2010 ceilings.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Emissions of ozone precursors
Indicator Assessment Bathing water quality (CSI 022/WAT 004) - Assessment published Dec 2010
The quality of water at designated bathing beaches in Europe (coastal and inland) has improved significantly since 1992. Compliance with mandatory values in EU coastal bathing waters increased from 82.3 % in 1992 to 95.6 % in 2009. Compliance with guide values likewise rose from 71.1 % to 89 %. In 1992, 37.4 % of EU inland bathing areas complied with mandatory values compared to 89.4 % in 2009. Similarly, the rate of compliance with guide values moved from 22 % in 1992 to 70.7 % in 2009.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Bathing water quality
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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