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Publication Freshwater quality — SOER 2010 thematic assessment
The continuing presence of a range of pollutants in a number of Europe's freshwaters threatens aquatic ecosystems and raises concerns for public health. Current reporting under the EU Water Framework Directive shows that a substantial proportion of Europe's freshwaters are at risk of not achieving the aim of 'good status' by 2015. Driven by the EU Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD), improvements in the collection and treatment of wastewater in some regions of Europe have led to a reduction in the discharge of some pollutants to fresh and coastal waters. Challenges remain, however, because UWWTD implementation remains incomplete and other significant sources of water pollution exist, especially agriculture and urban storm flows. The implementation of effective and timely measures, required under the WFD, needs to encompass a greater focus on controls 'at source' and the efficient use of resources including water, energy and chemicals.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Thematic assessments
Publication Air pollution — SOER 2010 thematic assessment
Emissions of air pollutants derive from almost all economic and societal activities. They result in clear risks to human health and ecosystems. In Europe, policies and actions at all levels have greatly reduced anthropogenic emissions and exposure but some air pollutants still harm human health. Similarly, as emissions of acidifying pollutants have reduced, the situation for Europe's rivers and lakes has improved but atmospheric nitrogen oversupply still threatens biodiversity in sensitive terrestrial and water ecosystems. The movement of atmospheric pollution between continents attracts increasing political attention. Greater international cooperation, also focusing on links between climate and air pollution policies, is required more than ever to address air pollution.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Thematic assessments
SOER Message (Deprecated) Biodiversity — key message 3
Land-use change and intensification are causing further fragmentation and homogenisation of forests and agro-ecosystems. Although some decline in freshwater nutrients has been observed, eutrophication of terrestrial ecosystems continues to be a matter of concern as shown by excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition in all EU countries.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Biodiversity — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
SOER Message (Deprecated) Air pollution — key message 2
As the amounts of acidifying air pollutants have fallen, the area of acid-sensitive ecosystems (such as freshwaters and forest soils) adversely affected in Europe has considerably reduced. Nonetheless, biological recovery in freshwaters is slow. The area of sensitive terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems affected by an excess input of atmospheric nitrogen in the EEA-32 has only diminished slightly between 1990 and 2010. The EU’s long-term objective of not exceeding the so-called critical atmospheric pollutant loads, which ecosystems can tolerate, has not been met.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Air pollution — SOER 2010 thematic assessment Key messages
Indicator Assessment Emission intensity of the domestic sector in Europe
The absolute decoupling of nutrient emissions from the domestic sector and population growth, over a period of almost two decades (1990-2011), is observed in fourteen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Finland, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Turkey). The actual extent of decoupling, and the differences in trends among countries, may be partially explained by the different numbers of inhabitants connected to tertiary wastewater treatment technologies. When making an EU wide comparison of the extent of decoupling of nutrient emissions from population growth, the actual proportion of the population connected to different types of wastewater treatment (elaborated in indicator CSI 024 ) and the completeness of data available on the population connected to collecting systems without treatment should be taken into consideration. The implementation status of the Urban Waste Water treatment Directive (UWWTD), which protects the water environment from the adverse effects of discharges of urban waste water, as well as the level of investment in water and wastewater management, may have an impact. Similarly, the implementation status of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Groundwater Directive may also have an impact. Furthermore household patterns and household income level affect the production and composition of wastewater and should also be considered. It is assumed that the use of actual data on loads discharged from wastewater treatment plants, combined with the load values calculated for the population not connected to wastewater treatment, would add value to the decoupling indicator as it would better reflect the real situation.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Emission intensity of the domestic sector in Europe
Figure Exceedance of the 5 percentile conditional critical loads for acidifying nitrogen, 1995
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Emission trends of nitrogen oxides (EEA member countries, EU-27 Member States)
This chart shows past emission trends of nitrogen oxides in the EEA-32 and EU-27 group of countries. In addition - for the EU-27 - the 2010 emission ceiling and aggregated projections reported by Member States are shown.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Nitrogenous fertiliser consumption
Nitrogenous fertiliser comsumption per agricultural land area unit.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Long time series of source apportioned load of nitrogen and phosphorus (kg/ha/year on y axes) in the period 1975 - 2003.
Mixed approaches.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Octet Stream Exceedance of critical loads of nutrient nitrogen, 2004 EMEP NO3-N and NH4-N deposition data
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Phone: +45 3336 7100