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File Effects of climate change
In the past 100 years, the number of cold and frost days has decreased in most parts of Europe, whereas the number of days with temperatures above 25°C and the number of heatwaves have increased. The frequency of very wet days has significantly decreased in recent decades in many places in southern Europe, but increased in mid and northern Europe. Cold winters are projected to disappear almost entirely by 2080 and hot summers are projected to become much more frequent. This will have a continuing effect on mountain regions. For every 1°C increase in temperature, the snowline rises by 150 metres. And by 2050, three-quarters of today's glaciers in parts of the Alps are expected to have disappeared. Source: State of the Environment Report No 1/2005 "The European environment - State and outlook 2005" (published 29 Nov 2005)
Located in Environmental topics Climate change Multimedia
Article Forests, health and climate change
Forests are essential to our survival and well-being. Forests clean our air, our water, our soil and they regulate our climate, amongst many other things. Trees and forests are not always associated with urban landscapes. However, there too they provide invaluable, often invisible, services. Simply by acting as 'green oasis' in our concrete jungles, they offer recreation and health services for many European citizens.
Located in Articles
Figure Burnt areas in Portugal, summer 2003
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Number of extreme heat waves in future climates under two different climate forcing scenarios
The top maps show the median of the number of heat waves in a multi-model ensemble of the near future (2020–2052) and the latter half of the century (2068–2100) under the RCP4.5 scenario, and the lower maps are for the same time periods but under RCP8.5
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Publication Forests, health and climate change
Urban green spaces, forests for cooler cities and healthier people
Located in Publications
Figure Heat waves — both a low share of green and blue urban areas and high population densities can contribute to the urban heat island effect in cities
The cities are displayed as dots of different colours and sizes. The colours represent the share of green and blue urban areas inside the Urban Morphological Zone of the city, the size of the dots reflects the population density within the core cities’ UMZ. The background map is the result of climatic modelling and represents the number of combined tropical nights (T>20°C) and hot days (T>35°C) for the period 2071 to 2100.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Urban climate analysis map for the city of Arnhem, the Netherlands
The map shows different climate classifications of the areas in the city of Arnheim
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
GIS Map Application Heat wave risk of European cities
The share of green (vegetated) and blue (water) areas within cities (2006) can influence the urban heat island effect. Also, population density is associated with increasing this effect of cities and exacerbate the effects of heat waves.
Located in Data and maps Interactive maps
Publication Adapting to climate change - SOER 2010 thematic assessment
Climate change is happening and will continue to have far-reaching consequences for human and natural systems. Impacts and vulnerabilities differ considerably across regions, territories and economic sectors in Europe. Strategies to adapt to climate change are necessary to manage impacts even if global temperature stays below a 2 °C increase above the pre-industrial level. The EU adaptation framework aims at developing a comprehensive strategy by 2013, to be supported by a clearinghouse for sharing and maintaining information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Thematic assessments
Publication chemical/x-pdb Urban environment - SOER 2010 thematic assessment
The global population is congregating in our cities. Eighty per cent of the world’s estimated nine billion people in 2050 are expected to live in urban areas. Our cities and urban areas face many challenges from social to health to environmental. The impacts of cities and urban areas are felt in other regions which supply cities with food, water and energy and absorb pollution and waste. However, the proximity of people, businesses and services associated with the very word ‘city’ means that there are also huge opportunities. Indeed, well designed, well managed urban settings offer a key opportunity for sustainable living.
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Thematic assessments
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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